Saturday, 28 September 2013

Ulster Roll of Gaol Delivery, 1613-1618

Amongst the ancient Records of the Court of Exchequer which are deposited in the Exchequer Record Office, at the Four Courts in Dublin there is to be found a Roll, by which it appears that, between the years 1613 and 1618, the Justices of Assize and Gaol Delivery proceeded to try the criminals who were then confined in the gaols within the province of Ulster. [1] By this Record, which consists of 100 membranes of parchment, and which is written in contracted Latin, we are informed of the names of the jury appearing upon the Inquests, of the names of the delinquents and the crimes of which they were accused, of their acquittal or otherwise, and of the sentences which were pronounced by the Judges; but of the more interesting particulars of those proceedings, such as the examination of witnesses, the address of counsel, and the charge of the Judge, this document is entirely silent. Incomplete, however, as it is, we cannot but gather from it much insight into the sad state of society in Ulster at the period of time to which it relates, as well as the severity of the Executive in its desire to carry forward the then favourite scheme of the "New Plantation" in that province.


-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

No. 1.

On the 27th of February, 1613, an Inquisition was taken at Down, before Christopher Sibthorp, one of the Judges of the King's Bench, and John Beare, Sergeant-at-Law, the Justices of Assize, appointed by a Commission dated the 11th of February in the same year, upon the oaths of the following Jurors:
Christopher Russell, of Bright, Esq.
Edward Johnson, of Boyle, Esq.
Robert Yonge, of Newery, gent.
James Audely, of Audlyston, gent.
James Russell of Magherytenpany, gent.
Brian boy O'Gilmer, of Gregvade, gent.
Christopher Walsh, of Walsheston, gent.
John Savage, of Rathalpe, gent.
Robert Swordes, of Balledonell, gent.
William Morris, of Foynebrege, gent.
John Russell, of Killogh, gent.
John Barr, of Balleedog, gent.
Donell oge McDuiggin, of Mahheretuck.
Walter oge Olune, of Ballygygon.
Phelyme McDoaltagh Offegan, of Edenmore.

Who find that Tirlagh oge McBryne, late of Loghany, county Down, yeoman, on the 1st of January, 1613, with force and arms at Ballyhennocke took and carried away a mare of a chestnut colour, price £8, the property of Con O'Neile. When placed at the bar he pleads not guilty, and is acquitted. The said Jurors also find that on the 20th of January in the same year at Logheny, county Down, he carried away a cow price 20s. the property of Donnogh Carragh McKenan, of which he is also acquitted.

They also find that Murtagh Moder Magrane, late of Dromneknogher, county Down, yeoman, on the 20th of August, 1613, at Ballemullnany, stole a chestnut-coloured mare worth 40s. the property of John Prestly, of which he is found guilty; and the judgment of the Court is that he be brought back to the gaol by the gaoler and be disengaged from his chains, and that he be led from the gaol thro' the midst of the town of Down as far as the gallows, and there hung by the neck until he be dead, and the Sheriff of Down is commanded to carry this into execution.

The Jurors also say that Art Magenis, of Kilwarlin, gentleman, and Donnill Magenis of the same, yeoman, on the 20th October, 1613, at the woods of Kilwarlin and other places, waged cruel and open war, by burning, murdering, and spoiling the King's liege subjects, and that on the last day of the same month, Turlagh McGregory and Patrick McGregory aided and supported them and other false traitors; but the said Turlagh and Patrick are acquitted.

The Jurors also find that James McDavye of Little Deleing, yeoman, on the 31st October, 1613, at the fields of Balleclavars, took a black-coloured mare worth £4, the property of Patrick Oranton, and he is acquitted.

They also say that Murtagh O'Kerran with others, on the 9th of November, 1605, with force and arms about 12 o'clock at night broke into the mansion house of John Bellew, gent., putting him in bodily fear by threatening to kill him, or at least to spoil him of his goods and money; but he is acquitted.

They also say that on the 3rd of August, 1609, Owen Savadge of Ballindre, yeoman, at Rathlelan, carried away three mares price £10 each, the property of a person unknown; and he is acquitted.

They say also that Manus Offlyn, of Roowe, yeoman, on the 11th of February, 1613, at Rodony, carried away two sheep worth 10s. the property of John Mountgomerey and Michael Cragg of Rodony, yeomen, and he is acquitted.

That Owin Offegan, of Dromore, yeoman, on the 17th of November, 1613, at Dromore, broke into the stable of John Todd between 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening, and carried away a mare valued at £8, his property. Acquitted.

That Owin McConan, of Killwarling, yeoman, on the 26th of September, 1613, at the fields of Balligligor, carried away two brown coloured horses, price £4 each, the property of John Dunbarr. -- Acquitted.

That Patrick O'Corran, of Tallome, yeoman, on the 6th of November, 1613, at same place, carried away 4 pigs, price 3s. each, the property of Teige O'Brian. -- Not Guilty.

That Robert Edger, of Portferry, yeoman, on the 8th of December, 1613, at Ballycorog, stole a black heifer price 16s. the property of Richard Savage. -- Acquitted.

That he also on the same day, at Portferry, stole a black heifer worth 20s. belonging to Hugh McIniske. -- Acquitted.

That Teige McMullan of Evagh, yeoman, on the 12th of January, 1613, at the fields of Lisnacrewe, stole a black mare price 40s. belonging to Patrick oge O'Gerron, yeoman. -- Acquitted.

That Gilleduff O'Morgan, of Mourne, yeoman, on the 1st of February, 1613, at Tullaghomy, stole 4 pigs, price 4s. each, the property of [2] Gilleduff O' Morgan. -- Acquitted.

That Gilleduff O'Morgan, of Newery, yeoman, on the 6th of February, 1613, at Mullaghmore, stole 17 pigs worth 3s. each, belonging to William O'Dalye. -- Acquitted.

That Jane McCraken of Kunningburne, spinster, on the 1st of December, 1613, went to the mansion house of Dugald Craford, of Kunningburne, gent, and between the hours of 8 and 9 in the evening, with a lighted torch in her hand, of malice aforethought, set fire to a small heap of straw there, whence the house and Mr. Craford who was in it, were burnt. -- Acquitted.

That Edward O'Carr, of Drumkreigh, yeoman, on the 12th of August, 1613, forcibly at Tawnymoore, County Armagh, stole a mare, price £4, belonging to Patrick McTawny. -- Acquitted.

That Con Boy Magenis, of Evagh, yeoman, on the 16th of February, 1613, at Dromore, stole a chestnut-coloured horse price £3, the property of John Todd. -- Acquitted.

That James McWilliams of Downepatrick, yeoman, on the 27th of September, 1613, "apud Downe Patrick, in apertu loco vocato 'a cow-house' cujusdam Simonis Goffockes in quandam vaccam de bonis et cattallis dicti Simonis Goffockes adtunc et ibidem existente insultutn fecit, ac cum dieta vacca secleratissime felonice ac contra nature ordinem tunc ibidem rem habuit veneream, dictamque vaccam carnaliter cognovit, ac sic cum eadem vacca peccatum illud horribile ac hodomiticum (Anglice vocatum B******) adtunc et ibidem felonice comisit ac perpetravit." -- Acquitted.

That Teige O'Hoyre of Balleenlogh, yeoman, on the 13th of September, 1613, in the fields there "in quandam Rose ny Hanlon spinster virginem etatis duodecim annorum tunc et ibidem in pace Dei et dicti domini Regis existentem iusultum fecit, et tunc et ibidem candem Rose contra voluntatem ipsius Rose felonice rapuit et carnaliter cognovit." -- Acquitted.

That Barnard Turke of Arglas, yeoman, on the 16th of January, 1613, about twelve o'clock at night, entered the mansion-house of John St. Lawrence, at that place, and stole £3 in money there lying in a chest, his property. -- Acquitted.

That Patrick Groome McGennis of Dounoan, yeoman, on the 15th of December, 1613, in the fields of Belfast, County Antrim, stole a black horse worth £6, the property of John Maukin, of Belfast, yeoman. – Acquitted.

That Phelym Starky, and Owen Gilboy, of Down, yeomen, on the 18th of March 1612, at Cargaghnebeg, stole £3 in money, the property of Art McGilkenny. -- Acquitted.

That Laghlin Duffe O'Hanlon, of Omeathe, yeoman, on the 1st of February, 1613, entered the mansion-house of Art O'Bryn of Newery, between 10 and 11 o'clock in the evening, and stole a keg of butter worth 10s. He is found guilty, and the judgment given is the same as that which was pronounced in the above-mentioned case of Murtagh Moder Magrane -- namely, that he should suffer execution in like manner.

That Manus Moder O'Bryne of Magherhawle, yeoman, on the 20th of December 1613, at Leitrym, stole a sow worth 8s, the property of Patrick oge O'Rogan. -- Acquitted.

That Phelim O'Morgan of Newery, and Patrick Boy O'Morgan of same, yeomen, on the 1st of December, 1613, at Tallaquoyle, stole two horses price 40s each, belonging to Brian Roc Offegan, and Shane McIlchrewe. -- Acquitted.

That Donnell McGennis of Kilvarley, yeoman, on the 26th of March, 1606, at the woods of Clerant, insulted James Russell with "a darte" price 6d, which he held in his right hand, and struck him upon the head, giving him a mortal wound one inch broad and three inches deep, of which he then and there instantly died. -- Guilty. His sentence is that he be brought back to the gaol, his fetters or chains taken off him, and that from the gaol thro' the middle of Downepatrick he be led to the gallows and there hung by the neck "ac semimortuus ad terram prosternatum ac interiora et membra secreta ejus extra ventrem suum scindantur ipsumque adhue viventem comburentur, et caput ejus amputetur, quodque corpus ejus in quatuor partes dividatur et caput et quarteria illa disponantur ubi dominus Rex ei assignari velit."

That William Colt, of Roemoore, yeoman, on the 11th of February, 1613, at Rodine, stole two sheep, worth 10s each, belonging to John Mungemery and Michael Cregan, of Rodin, gentlemen. -- Acquitted.

That Owin Carragh O'Laurie of Tobbercorr, yeoman, on the 6th of February, 1613, at the fields of Erduach, stole a chestnut-coloured mare worth £6, the property of Owin O'Keynan of Kiltaghlin, yeoman. -- Acquitted.

That John Morris, yeoman, on the 5th of October, 1612, at Downe, stole a brown mare worth £3, the property of John Morghye of Downe. -- Acquitted.

That Knockor McCranewell of Clinconnell, yeoman, on the 2nd of November 1613, stole a pig worth 5s at Clinconnell, belonging to Neile McCasey, of Clancanby. -- Acquitted.

That Christopher Magyn, of Cloonagh, yeoman, Hugh O'Lawrye of Evagh, yeoman, and Hugh McGillvan of same, on the last day of August, 1613, at Dondrom, stole two mares worth £5 each, belonging to Richard Gerland of same. -- Acquitted.

That Edward and William Bettee of Duffrin, yeomen, on the 20th of February, 1613, at Foynebroge, carried away six cocks of oats worth 6s 8d each, the property of Edmund O'Mullan and Cowlogh O'Kelly. -- Guilty. -- To suffer execution in the manner above mentioned.

That Brian O'Carran of Ballemurphey, and Augly O'Carrane of Strangford, yeomen, on the 1st of August, 1613, at Portferry, stole a  ------------------------------- ["unum cramentum esis"] worth 10s. the property of Rowland Savadge. -- Acquitted.

That James Roneland of Randufferan, yeoman, on the 2nd of February, 1612, at Killelogh, stole a sheet ---------- ["unum lodisem"] worth 5s., the property of John Moore. -- Acquitted.

That Patrick Reagh O'Mackerrill of Lismore, yeoman, on the 5th of August 1613, in the fields of Dongannan, County Tyrone, stole a horse worth £5 belonging to Dermot O'Corran. -- Acquitted. -- That Robert Meaghan of Cloghmaghracat, yeoman, on the 2nd of June 1613, in the fields of Rasrillan, stole a brown-coloured cow worth 40s., the property of Robert Farrenan. -- Acquitted.

And that Brian McConnor Offegan, of Quibdell, yeoman, on the 8th of November, 1613, at Edengarry, stole a red-coloured mare ["unam equam colons rubeam"] worth £3 belonging to Thomas McNelekin. Acquitted.

To be continued...

[1]  Made no doubt in pursuance of Writs of Certioriari, which were issued by the Court of King's Bench, directing the Clerks of the Crown in the province of Ulster,  to make a return to that Court of ‘all treasons, and felonies, and the misprision thereof, therein committed.’

[2]  So in the original.

The above article is reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. 1, 1853.

Thursday, 19 September 2013

A Lesson in Graphology

While the use of graphology in the field of genealogy and family history has become more prominent in recent years this pseudoscience has been discussed for a long time as this article from 1900 shows.

THE following six "hands," displaying widely different characteristics, have been selected for such comment as may enable the uninitiated to understand the lines upon which the graphologist proceeds to interpret the character of an individual as revealed in his or her handwriting. 

This specimen has been taken from the superscription of the envelope which contained the correspondent's example. The manner of the superscription shows foresight, inasmuch as care was taken, when writing the address, to commence well over on the left-hand side in order to avoid jumbling the final letters or abbreviating the concluding word. Foresight almost invariably bespeaks the capacity for forming sound judgment on matters which interest the possessor of so valuable a gift. The writing reproduced above shows that, not alone was foresight exercised in commencing to write the address on the envelope at the left-hand margin, but judgment was displayed in filling and spacing each line to a nicety. If one reflects for a moment it will be apparent that the foresight and judgment which enable a writer to produce an evenly-written epistle, a regular space between each word, the whole presenting an agreeable impression to the eye, establish a title to good taste. Individuality is shown in the formation of the "f" in "of" and the "B" in "Buildings," because both letters are unconventionally written. Candour and conscientiousness are evident from the clearness with which each letter is formed and the care exercised in dotting the "i's" and crossing the "t." The semi-blind "e's" in "The" and "Commercial" indicate that the writer can keep her own counsel whenever it becomes necessary to do so. One of the marked peculiarities of this writing is that some of the letters are disconnected from those preceding and following them in the same word, viz., "a" in "Lady," "s" in "House," "l" and "d" in "Buildings." This denotes the critical faculty; a habit of dissecting things, but it is usually associated with a lack of steady persevering effort. It is obvious that the writing was done briskly, hence we are correct in assuming that its author is energetic, and this opinion is strengthened by the strong stroke crossing the "t." Finally, to sum up this lady's character, I should say she possesses, according to the illustration given, foresight, good judgment, caution, excellent taste, individuality, candour, conscientiousness, power to criticise justly, and an energetic temperament.

Even those who throw doubt upon the possibility of delineating character from handwriting would recognize that there is considerable difference between the temperaments of the writers of the first and second specimens inserted in this column. The quick, decisive formation of the first script is in striking contrast to the leisurely hesitancy of the second example. The latter might be taken to be the caligraphy of a youth instead of a young lady, and, for that reason, I hold that the writer prefers the society of the opposite sex to her own, not because she seeks admiration, but because she is, at heart, a tom-boy. I read the character as a modest one, in the sense that, whatever element of self-esteem it cherishes is well concealed beneath the surface. There is neither the vigour nor flourish in the hand commonly associated with the writing of the self-conscious, I-know-my-own-worth type. As pointed out in the analysis of the first specimen, the clear formation of each letter in the second illustration indicates candour and conscientiousness. Here also we have careful dotting of the "i's" and crossing of the "t's," denoting conscientiousness and a memory above the average. With all this lady's candour she is likely to be misunderstood, and could, no doubt, corroborate this statement from her own personal experiences. I infer this from the ambiguous "d" at the end of the word "enclosed." In fact, wherever "d" has been written it can only be distinguished from "a" by the context, except in "handwriting" where it appears to have been raised to its proper altitude as an after-thought. A similar weakness occurs in two instances where "w" is the initial letter. It is dangerously like an "n." A very remarkable example of unconscious ambiguity is the "e" in "character," where the stroke of the "t" has created a hybrid. The general easy-going formation of this writing, the "g" at the end of the word "handwriting," the short strokes across the "t's," and the rudimentary tails at the end of terminal letters, all combine to indicate an ease-loving disposition that is constitutional rather than acquired. It is, in short, the writing of one whose character has not yet been fully developed. Youth and inexperience are so apparent in the rather elementary character of the writing that the writer's life must have been spent amidst singularly uneventful surroundings, if she be anywhere near thirty years on this planet.

My third subject differs in many respects from the ladies already dealt with. Here we have to deal with a temperament that finds the pen a slow instrument for transmitting ideas to paper. I gather from her communication that this lady has an aptitude for literary work. Well, granting such to be the case, she would employ a shorthand-writer to dictate "copy" to, and revise it herself when typed if she were in a position to do so. That is a natural inference from the rapidly written, businesslike specimen of the lady's writing which we now reproduce:-- 

The writer pays attention to detail, as people always do whose writing is on the small side. This example displays sensitiveness by the slope pervading every letter and affection loops that are present in the "l's," "h's," and "fs." The continuity with which each word is written indicates great perseverance in the pursuit of any object the writer has in view, and, as well, constancy in affection. Here also we have conscientiousness indicated in the same way as in the two earlier specimens; but with regard to energy, mental and physical, the subject now under notice is the most remarkable. As it is with the writing, so is it with the individual. If the three specimens be examined it should be palpable that the third one was written at greater speed than either of the other two. I hold it would be quite the same with regard to the conduct of affairs generally. The writer of number three is what the Americans call a "hustler," who would accomplish a task whilst others, smart people too, were thinking of how they would set about doing it. From the contrast between the superior formation of some words and the comparatively inferior writing of others, I deduce that the lady has strong likes and dislikes. The writing shows plenty of self-confidence in the freedom and certainty with which each word is set down, and I should be surprised if she does not achieve success in her literary efforts.

I reproduce the next specimen in full, because the advice contained therein is valuable. The lady's writing shows great self-possession. It is a reflex of her own deliberate and decisive manner. There is great energy in the writing, as evidenced in the long strokes to the "t's," but it is of the refined order. There are indications of great force of character in the firmness and undeviating sameness of the writing from start to finish -- an enviable stock of sound common-sense that should be readily discerned in the freedom from ornamentation of any kind. Foresight and judgment are shown, as in the first example, by the avoidance of overcrowding at the end of any line, whilst resourcefulness is revealed in the contracted "&," which has been utilized in the penultimate one. Secretiveness is more in evidence in this specimen than in any of the others -- blind "e's" are the rule. With such exceptional mental ability as the writer undoubtedly is blessed with, it is rather a cause of surprise to find her desirable comment framed exactly as it appears --

Here is an example of what most of my readers will regard as an exasperating "hand" --

The Civil Service Commissioners might justifiably engage the writer of above example to write puzzle MS. for candidates to transcribe correctly. It may be interpreted as -- "You so much. I shall be delighted to go. Will be with you about 2 o'clock." The lady will keep her appointment, because, notwithstanding her eccentric caligraphy, there are indications of orderliness in spacing the words and of method in adjusting the number of words in each line. The eccentricity in writing is, to my mind, a reflex of marked peculiarities: a subject of comment amongst her friends. There is much conversational ability revealed in the impatient formation of the writing, as if the pen were too slow a method for conveying the writer's ideas. There is always a great deal of self-esteem about people who write in this confused form, taking no pains to lighten the task of those who have to decipher their manuscript. As I have no conception whatever of the lady's identity, I do not hesitate to say that she is as contradictory and erratic as her writing. She will be your friend to your face, generous in deed, anticipatory in thought, and yet, if she has the least cause for being envious of you, she will not be equally considerate of you in conversation with third persons. She has a pronounced weakness for revealing your private affairs so far as she is aware of them. This absence of conscientiousness is obvious in the malformation of "m" in "much," of the letters "h," "b," "w," etc. The physical activity and indomitably obstinate will of the writer is displayed in the nervous energy of the thick, ruggedly formed, continuous writing of each word. There is no depth of affection shown in the writing, and I believe the blind "e's" indicate reticence respecting incidents in the writer's career about which, her friends have remarked her to be peculiarly silent, that is, when taken in conjunction with the generally erratic character of the writing, which is full of a life's struggle and combat with difficulties.

It is a refreshing pleasure to look upon the next specimen submitted:--

because it exhibits a splendid energy and decision of character in the heavy and superfluous stroking of the "t's." Note the ingenuity this lady reveals so readily to the patient student of graphology. The dotting of the "i" in "being" has been made the starting point for the "m " in the next word; the "g" in "graphology" has been happily utilized to give the final touch to the last letter of the preceding word; the rather egotistical and individuality-marking "I" has been cunningly linked with "h" in the "have" which follows, whilst the "t" in "with" has contributed to "m" in the succeeding word "much." The ingenuity of the writer is patent, but it is displayed in such a form that it denotes premeditated action and a capacity for looking ahead that is confirmed by the avoidance of over-running the words on any line. The critical faculty is here also, in the separate formation of certain letters in some words. Large writing, like the above, liberally spaced, denotes great generosity. In this particular "hand" I judge the temper to be good, and life is pleasanter than with the majority of people; a circumstance that undoubtedly tends to preserve equability of temperament. I fear, however, there is a disposition to "seek fresh fields and pastures new" -- a love of variety and change -- that may ultimately cause much discomfort to the gifted writer, if it be not checked.

I have always found, when judging character from handwriting, that it is a tactical blunder to tell people their faults even when they invite you to do so. I once had an opportunity of submitting some admirable specimens of my own writing to a lady graphologist at a bazaar in Dublin, and shall never forget how poignantly I felt her accusation that I was "not overburthened with affection." I felt it all the more keenly when those near and dear to me emphasized and reiterated that clause of the written analysis when reading it aloud for the amusement and instruction of a family circle. The lady was certainly correct in her delineation, remarkably so, but I still feel that she was a little unjust on my affective life. Yet, if right in every other respect, how could she be wrong in that one? -- From The Lady of the House, by courtesy of whose proprietors the specimens of handwriting appear.

This article was originally published in "The Open Window Illustrated - Literary Annual and Year Book of Local Annals" in 1900 which was centred on the Newry area. 

Thursday, 12 September 2013

Warrenpoint and Rostrevor - 1815


Abridged from The Newry Magazine for 1815.

WARRENPOINT is, comparatively speaking, a new village. About sixty years ago (1755), it had only one house, which stood near the seashore, at a distance from the road, and which belonged to Mr. Christopher Aiken. At present, it has a very considerable number, and is improving every year. There are many very comfortable lodging-houses in and around the village. The quay is very convenient, and is capable of receiving vessels of large burthen. The windmill, built by Mr. Robert Turner, is a very valuable concern. (The windmill was on the site of shops now occupied by Messrs Pedlow, The Square).

There was originally a very extensive rabbit warren at Warrenpoint, from which circumstance the village has received its name.

Near the village stands the new Presbyterian meeting-house, lately erected on the site of the old one.

Immediately on the right, and on the other side of the water, at Omeath, an elegant house, in the cottage style, lately built by James Bell, Esq., appears in view,

A little further on and near the shore, are the houses of Colonel Moore, and two very handsome lodges belonging to Mr. I. W. Glenny and Mr. John Mollan. Colonel Moore's house was built by the late Robert Best, Esq, At Seaview there is a row of neat houses, peculiarly well situated for the accommodation of bathers. The tide is also sufficiently deep for bathing, within a very short distance from the road.

The next remarkable object is the glebe-house, formerly called Marley, now Clonallon-house, which is at present the residence of the Rev. John Davis, the rector of Clonallon. (The authors of The Ancient and Present State of the County Down say, that Dr. Joshua Pullein, the incumbent, built the parsonage-house, Marley, so called from the abundance of marle which was found in its vicinity.) From Mr. Davis's house the prospect is extremely fine.

After passing Rosetta, a beautiful villa built by the Misses Taylor, in a very pleasant situation between the road and the shore (and which is now the property of the Rev. Holt Waring), and two handsome houses, built about eight years ago, by James Moore, Esq., in the cottage style, Arno's vale, the delightful seat of that gentleman, appears in view. (One of them is occupied at present by John Bellingham, Esq., who has a good taste for agricultural improvements, and has published some useful observations.) The house was built by John Darley, Esq. Previously, there had been a neat cottage on the site of the present edifice, which was built by the Rev.-------- M'Arthur, curate of Rosstrevor, and to which his daughter gave the name of Arno's Vale. Thomas Mercer, Esq., occupied this house for some years, during Mr. Moore's residence in India.

The seat of Francis Carleton, Esq., late collector of Newry, at present called Green Park, is situated on the left, at a considerable distance from the road. The original house was built by James Moore, Esq., father of Christopher Moore, Esq., of Newry. It was occupied for a time, first by Mr. Strong, and afterwards by Mr. Broomfield. Collector Carleton having added an entire new front, has made the house a very fine mansion.

NOTE. -- The following names of former residents of Warrenpoint will have a certain interest for many of to-day. They are taken from an old directory published in 1819:--

A. -- Alex. Adderley, surgeon. Rev. Saml. Arnold. B. -- Robt. Ballentine, tidewaiter. R. Brewer, tidewaiter. C. -- T. Campbell, schoolmaster. R. Creighton, schoolmaster. E. Creek, gentleman, Narrow-water. H. Carlisle, tidewaiter. D. -- Rev. J. Davis, rector. G. -- John Gossan, publican. Richard Goodwin, captain. I. -- Thomas Irwin, surgeon. M. -- Andrew Mainer, merchant, Narrow-water. S. -- Isaac Shields, shipbuilder, Greencastle. Smyth & Craig, salt manufacturers, Narrow-water. Andrew Sims, inn keeper. T. -- R. Tombes, acting admiral of Carlingford Bay. Michael Thomboe, broker and linguist, Narrow-water. The same authority tells that "on the 26th January, 1819, a savings-bank was instituted at Warrenpoint for the purpose of affording to the industrious poor a safe place of deposit for their savings. Sums as low as 10d at one time, and not exceeding รบ50 in one year, will be received from any individual. The Marquis of Downshire is a patron."

Rosstrevor was anciently the seat of the family of Trevor. The only daughter of Sir Marmaduke Whitechurch, who removed into Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was married to Edward Trevor, Lord Viscount Dungannon. This lady's name being Rose, the village in consequence received the name of Rosetrevor. The title in that family became extinct many years ago; the last Viscount having been killed at the battle of Almanza. The property afterwards came into the Ross family, and is possessed by it at present. The name of the place has in consequence become Rosstrevor. (The old name of the place was Carrickavraghad.) The great-grandfather of the Rev. Thomas Ross, the present rector of Rosstrevor, represented the town of Newry in parliament for a long series of years.

The building now occupied as a barrack was erected by the father of C. Moore, Esq, Major Ross having purchased the concern, added wings to it, and made it his place of residence.

A little further up the hill, stands the Roman Catholic chapel, a neat house, built about twenty years ago, but lately very much improved by the Rev. Bernard Gilmer.

At the upper end of the village, there is a very neat school-house lately built by Mrs. Dawson and Miss Balfour, who have established a school for the education of female children, twenty of whom receive instruction gratis. Besides reading, &c., the children are taught the straw-plait, and various kinds of needle-work. Flax for spinning is also given out to poor females, who are liberally rewarded for their labour.

Formerly there had been a charitable repository for the sale of work, and a school in Rosstrevor, established and supported by Mrs. Stewart, sister of the late Mrs. Hall, and by Mrs. Maguire. Of late, however, they have been discontinued.

At about half a mile from the village, stand the ruins of the old church of Kilbroney. These are of very considerable antiquity. There is an ancient stone cross at this place, which is regarded by the peasantry with peculiar veneration. At a little distance there is a well also, at the foot of a gigantic ash, which is resorted to by great multitudes of persons on particular occasions.

An ancient Clog-ban or white-bell, was found a considerable time ago, in the ivy which covers the gable of this ancient building. It is of excellent workmanship, and is used at present as an altar-bell in the Catholic chapel of Newry. (This bell is of the same kind as all the other ancient bells which have been found in Ireland, and which were rung on funeral occasions, though it is smaller than those commonly known. It is nearly of an oblong form in the mouth, and measures 7 5/8 inches, by 6 7/8 inches. It is 10 3/4 inches in height. It seems a mixture of brass and some very white metal. It has been exceedingly well cast, for though broken, it is still remarkably sonorous. This bell had remained unobserved in the ruins, for perhaps two centuries, and was at length discovered in rather a singular manner. During a violent storm, the wind shook the bell, and produced a sound which attracted the attention of some persons passing near the place.)

Kilbroney is the residence of Robert Martin, Esq., who has bleach-mills at this place.

Above Mr. Martin's, there is a chalybeate spring, which Colonel Ross had covered over, but it has not attracted observation.

Lower down is Mr. Black's paper-mill and dwelling-house. They were originally built by John Darley, Esq., and intended as an establishment for the bleaching of linen cloth.

At the quay are salt-works, now wrought by Mr. James Reilly. The quay was formed about seventy years ago, by Mr. John Martin, whose name was engraved on a stone built into the wall of the pier, but it is now effaced.

On the shelving bank beneath the road, stands the Wood-house, the residence of Trevor Corry, Esq. (In 1819 (four years after this account was published) the Wood-house was occupied by the Hon. and Rev. Edmund Knox, Dean of Down.) Originally, there was a small cabin at this place, the proprietor of which received lodgers. The elegant cottage which Mr. Corry has built here, within these few years, and other improvements he has made, have rendered it a most beautiful residence.

Rosstrevor has improved very much of late years, and contains at present several handsome houses. Topsyturvy, built by William Maguire, Esq., naturally attracts the observation of strangers, from the singularity of its appearance. It stands on the side of a steep hill, from which there is a pleasant prospect. There is no uniformity whatever in the building; and the kitchen is situated in the upper story. Mrs. Dawson, relict of the late Dean Dawson, has just finished a house on a novel plan, which, from its situation, promises to be a charming residence. Mr. Martin has also built a good house in the street leading to the quay. Admiral Fortescue's house, built by Mrs. Maguire, stands in a delightful situation. Smithson Corry, Esq., has lately fitted up a lodge in a very handsome style. Captain Wright and others have also added, by their improvements, to the beauty of the place.

The old church being too small, it is in contemplation to build a new one in a different situation, and preparations are now making for this purpose.

As the water is, in many parts, too shallow at Rosstrevor for bathing with convenience, it is remarkable that no bathing carriages have hitherto been used at that place. It cannot be doubted that one, properly constructed, would be highly useful for the accommodation of bathers, at the same time that it would be profitable to the proprietor.

          1815.                                                 M.

NOTE. -- the following names, old residents of Rosstrevor and vicinity, are taken from two ancient directories, one for 1819, and the other 1861:--

1819, B. -- Mrs Bell, Moygannon. J. Bingham, M.D. Thomas Black, paper manufacturer. Mrs. Bronlow, Richmond. C. -- R. Cooley, paper maker. Carlile Corry, Esq. Captain Courtney, Drumsesk Cottage. D. -- Mrs. Vesey Dawson, Riverside. Hon. & Very Rev. Dean of Down, Wood-house. Miss Devay, governess Miss Balfour's school. E. -- Rev. J.J. Evans, vicar of Kilbroney. F. -- Sir Chichester Fortescue, admiral, Cregfield. G. -- Givesome, gentleman, Broom Lodge. Rev J. Gilmore, P.P. J. -- J. Jackson, assistant deputy barrack-master. W. Jones, surgeon, R.N. L. -- Lord Viscount Lifford, Arno's Vale. N. -- Rev. J. Neill, R. C. curate. F. Newell, farmer, Killowan. Robert Newell, farmer, Killowan. R. -- Captain Read, Belview. James Reilly, salt refiner. Richard Ruxton, Esq., Ballyedmund. S. -- Mrs. Sarsfield, subscription shop. H. Sharkey, tidewaiter. James J. Small, linen merchant, Killowan. Joseph Small, farmer, Killowan. T. -- William Tempest, musician and lodging-house. H. Thunder, gentleman. W. -- S. Wilson, miller, Millbank.

1861, B. -- Miss Ball, The Villa. Mrs. Bruce, Benvenue. C. -- H. Carleton, Drumpark Cottage. Mrs. Carvill, Forestbrook. E. Curties, Arno's Vale. E. -- Mrs. Ensor, Riverside Cottage. F. -- Mrs. Forde, Carpenham. M. -- Mrs. M'Neill, Tiny Lodge. P. -- G. Pollard, J.P., Lowwood House. Mrs. Pollard, Ranfurly. R. -- S. Ramadge, Craig House. Captain Ramadge, Wood-house. Captain Ramsay, Mourne Park. Mrs. Squires, Westview. David Stead, Steadley. W. -- Mrs. Waring, Clooneaven.

This article was originally published in "The Open Window Illustrated - Literary Annual and Year Book of Local Annals" in 1900 which was centred on the Newry area. 

Thursday, 5 September 2013

Manners and No Manners

In 113 years some topics have never changed...

IT is well to be reminded frequently of the little, every-day, commonplace duties. We cannot always be on the mountain-top. The greater part of life is lived in the lowly valley among plain people, who look at things from the average angle, and do not relish the unusual and the high-flown. But, if such an expression is allowable, the commonplace may have its idealism. It may be touched with the fine bloom of charm or it may sink to rude vulgarity. There is a way of shaking hands, of saying a simple good-morning, of lifting a hat, that makes us happier for a day . . . All the gamut of emotions is run by subtle signs, -- the glance of an eye, the turn of a head, the curl of a lip. This language expresses more in a gesture than many words can express. It speaks the truth where the tongue might utter falsehood. It is the play of expression that no mark can wholly cover. The truth of what we are escapes like a fine fragrance from high civility and the soul of courtesy, and on the other hand marks as low-bred some who pride themselves on all the elegances.

The etiquette books that aim to teach how to sit and stand, to bow and enter a room, to courtesy and hold a fan, do not speak of these things. They miss the secret of manners so completely they are ludicrous. Many years ago, in the old-fashioned girls' boarding school, manners were taught, on a false method perhaps, but they were taught. At present they do not seem to be taught on any method. In spite of the stiff, stilted style of the old days a type was created. We speak of old-fashioned courtliness and breeding as something finer and better than anything that exists now. A gentleman of the old school shines in contrast to the gentleman of no school. The young man who always places a chair for his mother, who opens a door for her, who gives her his arm when she passes from a room, is considered exceptional, perhaps a little eccentric. Mothers and grandmothers are not spoiled by petting in our time. It is well if they are not considered a burden . . . The tendency of our time is not to reverence age, but to put it in a corner.

The young do not now seem as much in unison and sympathy with their elders as in times past . . . The family is less a school of manners and morals than it was when all the members laboured at some common task. Now the young gain most of their training from the outside. In well-to-do families they have few home cares. Their interests are abroad. They know a great deal more about athletics and less about domestic life. Golf, tennis, college sports, the bicycle, have done something to break up family unity. The old cannot share in these things. Some fathers and mothers strive to follow their children on these paths. Others cannot go with their children in these ways. The very language of sport is to them an unknown tongue. Thus the separation between the young and the old becomes more marked, and has a distinct effect on manners.

The advantage of athletics to health and physical development is another story. But it is not probable that the bicycle track and the golf field will ever furnish a school of fine manners. The rough contacts of athletic exercises do not lie in that way. Manners inhere in a gentle, refined, delicate appreciation of the excellences of others, a power of entering into others' lives through sympathy, the power of sacrificing self, of taking the neighbour's point of view, and not of thrusting our own in the face of society. Fine manners make an ideal retreat from the struggles and conflicts of the world, a little pause in the great battle, where people may meet on a higher plane, out of reach of contention and strife.

In certain quarters, attention has been called to the excessive rudeness of so-called society people, -- how push and clamour and noise and malevolence have taken the place of decorous and refined behaviour. The society person, it is said, has a great art of making his inferior in wealth and position feel small. To snub is an art largely cultivated. All aspirants for notice, not of a certain stamp, are to be suppressed, not gently, but with unmistakable rudeness. Thus the finest elements of our people are riot in society. It is very sad, so the wise ones tell us, that the most gifted, virtuous, and excellent should be excluded from these sacred precincts where the bold, pushing, and insolent are freely received.

The home must still be the place where manners are instilled and practised. The delicacies and refinements of life are better taught there than on the golf links, the tennis court, in the kennel and stable. We have sometimes suffered from having had the manners of the stable and kennel brought into the home. We hear much said about the thoughtlessness of youth, but thoughtlessness can only be corrected by instruction. Good manners are not instinctive. They must be taught. The child would go on eating with his fingers if he were not told how to use his knife and fork. We live in an age when everything else seems to be attended to but manners. Perhaps by and by some benefactor of his kind may establish a college of manners, where youths and maidens shall be taught to honour their mothers and grandmothers, to consider their maiden aunts and poor relations, where lessons shall be given in the treatment of inferiors, where they shall receive diplomas and medals for gentle courtesy and beautiful behaviour.

It is a fine thing to be strong, broad-chested, and big-limbed; but it is a lovely thing to be kindly, considerate, tender, helpful, and generous. All these elements enter into manners. Would we might see a new age of chivalry, with the absurdities and excesses of the old left out. Even Don Quixote is more respectable than any merely strong man of our time, -- a very perfect, courteous, poor gentleman, who has crept to a warm place in human reverence. So we await the time when manners may come in again, when no manners will be thought a stigma rather than a distinction.

Our age glorifies strength, skill, and agility, and honours many strange heroes; but all perishes and fades and falls before the ideal touch of beauty, the nobility of tender and generous impulses, the exquisite refinements of feeling that touch humble lives with radiance, and out of which spring heroic deeds, supernal goodness. These possibilities are the great treasures of our humanity, the qualities that make us men and women All the reverences meet in a nature of exalted courtesy; and manners are no longer external and ephemeral, but the very essence of being. -- The Christian Register.

This article was originally published in "The Open Window Illustrated - Literary Annual and Year Book of Local Annals" in 1900 which was centred on the Newry area.