Friday, 29 November 2013

The French Settlers in Ireland - No 1

The Huguenot Colony 

at Lisburn,

County of Antrim.

by Charles Nicholas De La Cherios Purdon, M.D.

Among the various immigrations which have so diversified the population of Ireland, there is none that has been attended with more important results than that of the French Huguenots, which took place at the close of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century. For a long series of years they had enjoyed in France the toleration granted under the celebrated "Edict of Nantes." By virtue of this law every "lord of a fief, whose power extended to capital punishments, was allowed the free and unrestrained exercise of the Reformed Religion within his own castle; every lord without capital jurisdiction was permitted to have thirty persons present at Divine Worship in his family; and the full and plenary exercise of this religion was authorised in all places under the immediate jurisdiction of a parliament." The Huguenots might also obtain offices of honour; were allowed the privilege of being tried before magistrates of their own persuasion; and might print books without applying for license to their superiors, in those cities where their form of religion was permitted. Their churches, also, as well as garrisons, were to be supported, in part at least, from the public resources. A clause, however, was introduced, restricting Protestant places of worship to certain distinct localities; none were to be erected within several miles of the capital; and several cities were held as pledges for the due performance of these stipulations. The Huguenots continued in possession of their privileges until the reign of Louis 13th, who, having established the Roman Catholic religion in Béarn, drove the Protestants to arms, and refused to make peace with them unless they would demolish their garrisons and abandon their "cautionary towns." In 1625 he attacked Rochelle, which, after a siege of many weeks, and the loss of 13,000 of its citizens, surrendered to him. After its fall he granted to the Huguenots what was called the "Edict of Grace" by which (though the exercise of the Protestant religion was prohibited at Rochelle and some other places,) the "Edict of Nantes" was to a certain extent confirmed. But the hatred to Protestantism was as strong as ever, and soon showed itself in many annoying forms. Any man who called the Protestant places of worship "churches" was made liable to a fine of 500 livres. At Rouen a Protestant youth could not be apprenticed unless fourteen Roman Catholics were taken at the same time; and no Protestant was allowed to act as an apothecary. Numerous separate edicts now appeared attacking them on all sides. One [in May 1659, and again in March 1661,] prohibited them from singing psalms, even privately in their own houses. Another [1664] compelled them to bury their dead clandestinely, and in the night. Another [1663] deprived the Protestant magistrates of the privilege of presiding in their courts. Another withdrew the means of instructing their children, leaving them only the minor schools, where they were taught merely to read, write, and count. Another prohibited them from printing books in favour of their religion, without permission from the King's Council; and this, of course, could not be obtained. Another obliged parents, when children changed their religion, to give them a pension. Another [1665] prevented Protestants from giving charity to their poor brethren. Another exempted, from the payment of their debts, all those who should turn Roman Catholic. Another prohibited the ministers from preaching beyond the place of their residence. Another authorised priests and friars to enter the houses of Protestants, and to come to their bed-side, when sick or dying, to urge them to change their religion. By a single decree [August 1662] not less than 23 churches were pulled down on the merest pretences; and in four years 187 Protestant places of worship were destroyed. A monk of Béarn boasted that, of 123 churches in the province, (resting on the most unquestionable title,) only 20 then remained. Similar cases might be cited in the other provinces of France; and Protestants were often obliged to travel 40 miles or more to attend public worship, or to get their children baptized. The intermarriage of Protestants with Roman Catholics was forbidden; and the next step was to constitute children, at the age of seven years, capable of choosing their own religion. These, with other intolerable oppressions, induced many to determine on quitting France; and, in 1682, three thousand families emigrated from a single quarter. This rapid depopulation of the country alarmed the Government, and an act was passed declaring departure from France severely penal. Part of the French army, which was then marching against Spain, was turned to the south of France; these were quartered upon the Protestants, and their oppressive and overbearing conduct is since recorded under the name of the "Dragonade." Notwithstanding the numerous petitions presented to the king entreating his clemency, of which the last, couched in the most submissive terms, was placed in his own hands by the Marquis de Bourigny, the General-Deputy, in 1684, he remained inflexible; and on Thursday, the 8th October 1685, the fatal Edict was signed, and the doom of the Protestant church was sealed. To this measure Louis the 14th was incited by the united influence of the Chancellor Le Tellier, his son Louvais, and Madame de Maintenon, as well as by the Jesuits and the Church of Rome. The "Revocation" con sisted of a Preface and twelve Articlesa; and these were so rigorous that the entire Protestant Church was utterly crushed, and those who possibly could, hastened to the frontiers. These, however, were strongly guarded, as Louis did not wish to lose such good subjects; so that the fugitives were beset with danger: however, by gaining over some of the guards, no less than fifty thousand families were enabled to escape. These dispersed and settled in various countries, benefiting them by the introduction of their arts and manufactures. Those who were not fortunate enough to escape endured the most dreadful punishments. Some were hung up by the feet, and fires of wet straw lighted under them: when nearly dead, they were taken down and asked to abjure their religion, and then, if they refused, the torture was again applied. Some were half roasted; others, tied with ropes, were plunged into deep wells, from whence they were not drawn out until they promised to abjure. Laval in his history of the Reformed Church of France, has an appendix of 100 pages in which he describes, in detail, the seven different ways in which Louis tried to force the Reformed to change their religion. Many of the highest rank and station, (such as Marolles, and Le Febvre,) were consigned to the galleys, where they lived in chains for many years, or died under the hands of their task-masters. However, as already mentioned, large numbers effected their escape: and arriving in Switzerland, Germany, England, Holland &c., were kindly welcomed in each.b Great exertions were made in their behalf by the Queen of Denmark; and the Swiss showed the greatest sympathy, and received, without exception, all who came, concealed as the were under the most varied disguises. Women were often dressed as men, and children packed up in chests as clothes. Those who passed into Holland at once received patronage and protection from William, Prince of Orange; and all who had served in the French army received commissions of equal rank in his service. Several entire regiments of the refugees were formed, and accompanied him to England, and eventually to Ireland. Here, after peace was restored, they formed several settlements, being joined by numbers from England and Holland. The chief localities of the colonies in Ireland were Lisburn (then called Lisnagarvey,) Dundalk, Dublin, Portarlington, Youghal, and Cork. Here they enjoyed many religious privileges, having their own pastors, their service conducted in their own language, and their ministers supported by the state. In Portarlington the service was performed in the French language till within the last fifty years.

The Huguenot settlement in Lisburn, (to which the present article more particularly refers, and whose beneficial effects are visible at the present day throughout the province of Ulster,) owed its prosperity, in a great degree, to the fact that the Government of that day was desirous of discouraging the Woollen manufacture in Ireland, as injurious to England, and of encouraging the Linen manufacture in its stead. In November, 1697, in consequence of the representations of the Commissioners of Trade, presented to Parliament, a Bill was passed for this purpose, which contained various enactments calculated to foster the Linen Manufacture; and which were to continue in force for 21 years.c After the passing of this act, King William next invited over, from Holland, Louis Crommelin, a French Huguenot, who had obtained great celebrity in the Linen trade in that country, and who was considered the most suitable person to introduce the manufacture, in its most improved state, into Ireland. Accordingly, in the year 1698, he left Holland, accompanied by his son, and proceeded to the North of Ireland, to examine what place would be best adapted for the undertaking. After due deliberation, he selected Lisnagarvey, (now Lisburn,) in the county of Antrim, as the centre of the proposed settlement. The King, who took great interest in the project, approved of the site, and appointed Louis Crommelin "Overseer of the Royal Linen Manufacture of Ireland." He encouraged him to invite over others of his countrymen, both of high and low rank, to take part in establishing the manufacture and instructing the natives; promising to befriend all who came, and granting a premium of £5 for every loom kept going.d Louis now brought from Holland 1000 looms and spinning-wheels of an improved construction; and invited over a number of French and other families, (in general, Huguenot refugees, like himself,) who gladly complied, and soon founded quite a colony among themselves. Three of these were appointed assistants to Louis, at a yearly salary of £120 each. A church was built for the accommodation of the community,e and a chaplain ordained, receiving £60 per annum.f Their original bible and prayer-book in the French language is still preserved.g

This colony consisted, besides the Crommelins, of about twenty-seven families, who were accompanied by many respectable tradesmen. These settlers closely adhered to each other, generally intermarrying for two or three generations; and long cherished the hope of being one day enabled to return to their own country. During the reigns of William and Anne they continued to enjoy many privileges and marks of favor. King William, after some time, considering that Louis Crommelin had expended, out of his private fortune, a capital of £10,000 on the undertaking, granted to him a pension of £200 a year, during his life. Louis, however, requested that this pension should be given to his son, which was accordingly done; but this son dying only three months after,h the pension reverted to the crown, and was not renewed; so that Louis himself derived no benefit from it. Louis Crommelin had many personal interviews with the King, who shewed him much honor; and he likewise received the formal thanks of the Irish Parliament in 1707. He was followed to Ireland, some time after, by two of his brothers, who brought with them a capital of £20,000; each brother having been left £10,000 by their father. Several tradesmen, also, came with them; and finally Alexander, the third brother, and Madeline, their sister joined them. The other sister, Marie, had married, whilst in Holland, Nicholas de la Cheroy; after his death, in 1706, she, likewise, with her children, Samuel and Madeline, came to reside at Lisburn, near her brothers.

Louis Crommelin, who thus may be said to have founded the present Linen Manufacture of Ulster, seems to have been respected and esteemed both by his countrymen and by the Irish, as a most intelligent, upright man; and, though a foreigner, taking a warm interest in the welfare of his adopted country, and devoting himself to its improvement. He was the author of a valuable Essay, printed in 1755, and entitled, "An Essay towards the improving of the Hempen and Flaxen Manufactures of Ireland," containing many useful instructions for the better management of the Flax plant in its various stages, and for the several processes of spinning, weaving and bleaching. Almost every one of these has been adopted in Ulster; and though, of course, many other improvements have been introduced of which he was ignorant, still his Essay must be considered as a very remarkable production. With all the details of the Linen Manufacture he was well acquainted; the Crommelins having been, for nearly 500 years, extensive linen merchants, and possessed of large estates at Armandcourt, (anciently Vermanduorum,) a village near Saint Quintin, in Picardy. More prudent, however, than many of their countrymen, they had forseen the approach of the storm, and had gradually removed much of their wealth to Holland, before it burst. In that country they continued to prosper, both as merchants and bankers; and they had became so eminent that Cooper, the American novelist, mentions the Crommelins of Amsterdam as well-known bankers in the time of Queen Anne. Louis Crommelin died in 1727.i

Closely connected with the Crommelin family was that of De la Cherois, also Huguenot refugees, and forming part of the colony at Lisburn. They had suffered deeply under the persecutions in France; and at length were so utterly scattered and despoiled that, after the general flight, only two members of the family were known to have remained behind; and those two were deaf and dumb co-heiresses, who had been placed for education in a convent. Immediately on the departure of their rightful guardians, they were forcibly detained, and their property confiscated for the use of the convent. The only branch of the De la Cherois family, which can be traced at all through their Irish descendants, is that of Languedoc, to which belonged the three brothers who fled to Holland. Of their previous history scarcely anything is now known, more than is above stated; owing to the peculiarly reserved character of the first of this family who settled in Ireland. He felt so deeply the utter ruin of his fortunes, and the banishment from his country, that, in his anxiety to spare his children unavailing regret, he always evaded entering into the particulars of his history. The few that have been ascertained have been obtained chiefly from old papers and fragments apparently preserved by chance, and from some of the original old Commissions. From these sources we learn that the family was derived from a small town or "seigneurie," called Chery or Cheroy, near Sens, in the province of Champagne, where, in the beginning of the 17th century, they had large possessions, and where they had continued in the rank of noble "proprietaires" for upwards of 500 years. They were connected with some of the first families in that country; amongst others, with the noble house of Montmorenci, by the marriage of Catherine de la Cheroy with Jean, Seigneur de Beauferney, whose daughter married Antoine de Montmorenci. We also find in an old French genealogical MS. the following account of some alliances of various branches of this family, commencing as far back as the year 1400, when the name seems to have been Chery. In this is related how Louise de Chery married "Raoul de St. Reiny;-- Chevalier tué à la bataille d' Agincourt en 1415." We next find a Seigneur de Chery, de Senailly, et d' Ieche, marrying Ammesson de Veroncourt, who was left a widow in 1449; "avait le bail de ses enfans, et fit hommage pour eux de la terre de Cheroy." Her eldest son, Jean, married, first, Isabel de Huacourt, and secondly, Catherine de Choiseul, who appears to have been an heiress, and in right of whom her children and husband assumed the name of Choiseul. By her he had issue, 1. Claude de Choiseul, Sergent de Chery, and Maitre des Regents, who married "Marie de Beauvais, veuve d'Olivier Le Fevre d'Ornessan, et fille de Claude de Cahout, Seigneur des Ormes, Président des Tresoreries de France a Orleans, et de Marie Fontaine des Montres:" and 2. Jeanne, who married "Charles de Courtenay, Seigneur de Blenan, et de Catherine de l'Hospital:-- il fut l'un de ceux qui prirent les armes pour s'opposer au Due de Orleans en 1485, et se trouve à la battaille de St. Aubia du [                ,] en 1488." Dying of the wounds he received at this battle, his widow Jeanne, married again, (17 April 1502,) Pierre de Poliegue, Seigneur de Borneville. After this we find no memorial until 1616, when it is stated that "Robert, Seigneur de Chery, et de Beauchamp, en Bourgogne, et de la Chapelle, fils de Jean, Seigneur de Chery et de Françoise Le Conquerant," married (16 Sept.) Marie de St. Simon, by whom he had one daughter, Marie Therèse, who married "Pierre Forest, Seigneur de Bellefontaine et de Puisseux, Conseiller au Parlement de Paris." By him she had a daughter, "Marie Anne, qui fut mariée par contrat, 4 Juin 1698, à Bonaventure Frotier, Seigneur de la Messalière, dit le Marquis de Messalière, reçu page de la grande écurie du Roi, le premier Janvier, 1672; après avoir été Exempt des Gardes du corps du Roi, il fut nommé Lieutenant des Grendarmes de Bourgogne le 31 Janvier, 1672, Brigadier de Cavalerie en Jan. 1702, fut blessé à la bataille de Hochsted au mois d'Août, 1714, et conduit en Angleterre. Il fut nommé Maréchal de Camp, au mois d'Octobre, la même année, et mourut en sa terre de la Messalière, 14 Sept. 1711." His wife (Marie Anne) "s'est remariée, Fevrier, 1720, à un Exempt des Gardes du corps du Roi, ayant eu de son premier man quatre enfans."

These notes, however, are so incomplete that we must take up the history of the Languedoc branch through the "Capitaine Samuel," a younger son of the Cheroy family. We find him first mentioned, in 1600, as an officer in the army, and obtaining a company about 1641: serving, no doubt, frequently under the banners of the great generals of the time, and in the wars with Austria undertaken by Louis XIII., under the rule of Cardinal Richelieu. Of his three sons, two followed his example, and embraced a military career, while the eldest, Daniel, remained at home with his father; who, on retiring from the army, had married an heiress in Languedoc, and settled there. At his death he left a handsome fortune to his eldest son, besides providing for his two daughters, Judith and Louise, and for his younger sons, Nicholas and Bourjonval, then subalterns in a regiment of Fusiliers. Nicholas' commission as Lieutenant, bears date 1675; and he was promoted to a company in 1677, at which period we find his brother Bourjonval a Lieutenant also. They had the honour of serving under the great Condé, who, with Turenne, at that time shed such a lustre on the French arms. Condé, however, resigned the command of the armies of France about this time, and died shortly after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

The two brothers remained with the army, and generally in action, until the "Revocation" compelled them to fly with so many of their countrymen. Nicholas and Bourjonval went at once to Holland, whither Daniel followed them. Judith and Louise, their sisters, who seem at first to have been averse to leaving France, were, in the end, obliged to fly in disguise, on horseback, accompanied by a faithful page, travelling always by night, and concealing themselves in the woods during the day. They took with them all the jewels and money they could carry, hiding them in the folds of their dresses. They made their way to Ham, where they continued to reside for some years; though eventually they followed their brothers to Ireland.

The three brothers having, as we have said, fled to Holland, were there received with the utmost kindness by William, Prince of Orange. He at once enrolled all the Huguenots, who had been of the military profession, in distinct regiments attached to his own service, in which the officers obtained commissions of equal rank to those which they had held in France. Nicholas de la Cheroy was given a company, and Bourjonval a lieutenancy, in the regiment commanded by Colonel de Cambon, while Da niel was made a lieutenant in that of the Comte de Marton. They remained, from this period, closely attached to William, and constantly engaged in his service, until the time of his ascending the English throne, when they also were among his followers. During their residence in Holland, they became known to, and finally connected with, the Crommelins. Both Nicholas and Daniel married ladies of this family; Marie, (sister of Louis Crommelin, employed by King William to introduce the Linen Manufacture into Ireland,) becoming the wife of Nicholas; and Madeline her cousin, the wife of Daniel de la Cheroy.

To be continued...

* As it is our intention, in future numbers of the Journal to give an account of all the different French settlements in Ireland, we shall feel obliged to our correspondents for any information on the subject. [Ed.]

[a] The Preface is meant as an apology for the measure, and, as might be expected, is full of false statements. By the 1st Article, the King repeals the protective edicts in all their extent, and ordains that all the temples, which may be yet found standing in his kingdom, shall be immediately demolished. By the 2d. he prohibits all religious assemblies of what kind soever. The 3d prohibits the exercise of religion to all lords, and gentlemen of quality, under corporal penalties, and confiscation of their estates. The 4th banishes from the kingdom all the ministers, and enjoins them to depart thence within fifteen days after the publication of the edict, under penalty of being sent to the galleys. In the 5th and 6th he promises recompenses and advantages to such ministers, and their widows after them, as shall change their religion; and ordains that those children, who shall be born thenceforward, shall be baptized and brought up in the Catholic religion; enjoining parents to send them to the churches under a penalty of 500 livres. The 9th gives four months time to such persons as have already departed out of the kingdom to return; otherwise their goods and estates to be forfeited. The 10th prohibits all his subjects, of the said religion, and their wives or children, from departing out of the realm, and from conveying away their effects: under penalty of the galleys for the men, and confiscation of money and goods for the women. The 11th confirms the declarations heretofore made against those that relapse. And the 11th declares at that, "as to the rest of his subjects of the said religion, they may (till God enlightens them) remain in the cities of his kingdom and the countries and lands of his obedience, there continue their commerce and enjoy their estates without trouble or molestation on account of the said religion, on condition that they have no assemblies under pretext of praying or exercising any religious worship whatsoever."

[b] See Appendix. Many went to Ireland, the Cape of Good Hope, Jamaica, North Carolina and New York. A small colony came from Picardy into Scotland, and introduced there the manufactures of silk and cambric. Another party came from Bordeaux, and settled at a village near Edinburgh, still known by the name of "Bordy-house." At Glasgow, also, a paper manufactory was established by a French Huguenot who escaped, accompanied only by his little daughter; and who was obliged, at first, to support himself by picking up rags through the streets. Not less than 20 millions (francs) of property left France with the emigrants.

[c] The following is an abstract from this Act. The Linen manufacture was to be set on foot and encouraged in Ireland, so as to make it the staple trade of this country. Spinning to be taught gratis to the children of those who were not worth more than 40 shillings per annum. At every Summer Assizes it might be lawful for any female inhabitants of a district to come and show their skill in spinning on the double wheel: a premium of £10 to be awarded by the Grand Jury to the one who should spin the best thread in an hour, and her name to be recorded in Court as a "mistress-spinner:" a certificate of the same to be granted, without fees, in presence of the Judge, Sheriff, and Foreman of the Grand Jury, entitling her to privileges in whatever city she dwelt. And that poverty might not keep any back, two pence per mile was allowed for travelling expenses: the person, if destitute, to receive double relief from any charitable society in the place. Every weaver at Summer Assizes, might bring a piece of cloth as sample of his workmanship; the best piece to receive £10 premium, adjudged by the Foreman of the Grand Jury, those conversant with the Linen Manufacture, and an officer appointed by the directors of the trade:-- the workman to be recorded as a "master weaver." Five directors to be appointed, each roceiving £100 a-year; their salary to increase as the trade prospered.

[d] This was discontinued after his death.

[e] This still exists, being the present Court-house of Lisburn.

[f] There were three French Chaplains in succession. The first was the Rev. M. de la Valade; the second remained only 2½ years and his name is not known: the third was the Rev. Saumarez Dubourdieu. who was minister for 45 years, and was so beloved in the neighbourhood that, in the insurrection of 17i8, he was the only person in Lisburn whom the insurgents agreed to spare. -- The clerk of the chapel was M Peter Goyer.

[g] Now in the possession of the Rev. E. J. Cordner, Derramore, Lisburn, a relative of the writers. It is printed in folio, at Geneva, A.D. MDCLXXVIII; the Title-page is as follows: "LA SAINTE BIBLE, QVI CONTIENT L'ANCIEN ET LE NOVVEAU TESTAMENT, C'EST A DIRE, L'ANCIENNE ET LA NOVVELLE ALLIANCE. LE TOUT REVEV ET CONFERE SUR LES TEXTES HEBREVX ET GRECS par les Pasteurs et Professeurs de l'Eglise de Geneve. Avec les Indices et les Figures necessaires pour l'instruction du Lecteur. On a ajouté en cette dernière Edition les Pseaumes de David, mis en rime Francçoise per Clement Marot, et Theodore de Beze. A Geneve, chez lean Anthoine Chovët. MDCLXXVIII." An Epistle is prefixed, addressed, "A tous ceux qui aiment la vérité de Dieu, comprise dans les Livres de l'ancienne et de la nouvelle Alliance: Grace soit et paix, de la part de Dieu nôtre Pere, et de nôtre Seigneur JESUS CHRIST:" -- and concludes in these words. "Au reste tres-chers freres, en quels lieux, paĭs, royaumes, et nations, que vous-vous trouviez unis, ou mêmes en quels endroits que par la malice des temps vous soyez épars, puis que c'est principalement à vous que nous avons desiré et tâché de servir, en proposant en nôtre langue maternelle ce grand et indicible thresor, selon nôtre capacité: c'est aussi à vous de le recevoir avec une droite affection, pour y chercher cette perle uniquement precieuse de la connoissance, erainte, et amour de Dieu, et de nôtre Seigneur Jesus Christ, qui est ici misc comme en son Sanctuaire, au lieu qu' ailleurs il n'y a que des cisternes crevassécs, et des ruisseaux troubles des inventions humaines; par lesquelles les hommes sout reudus, non pas religieux, mais superstitieux; dont il ne naist qu' un penser, et non un croire: une opinion, et non une vraye foy."
     Then follows a Preface by John Calvin, entitled: "Preface montrant comment Christ est la fin de la Loy, par Maistre Iean Calvin." Prefixed to each Book of the Old and New Testament is an "Argument" or summary of its contents, and a like summary at the head of each chapter. The volume also contains the Psalms of David in French verse, and accompanied with the Music. The 1st Psalm begins as follows:--
     Qui au conseil des malins n' a été,
     Qui n' est au train des pecheurs arrete,
     Qui des mocqueurs au banc place n' a prise,
     Mais nuict et jour la Loy contemple et prise
     De l'Eternel, et en est desireux;
     Certainement celui-là est heureux.
     Then follows the form of Church Prayers with the manner of celebrating marriage, administering the sacraments &c. The whole concludes with the Catechism, and the Confession of Faith, which last is thus entitled:-- "Confession de Foy faite d'un commun Accord par les François qui desirent vivre selon la purete de l'Evangile de nôtre Seigneur, Jesus Christ."

[h] His grave is in the present church-yard of Lisburn: the tomb-stone in the wall bears the following inscription: "Six foot opposite lyes the body of Louis Crommelin, born at St. Quintin in France, only son to Louis Crommelin and Anne Crommelin, Director of the Linen Manufactory, who died beloved of all, aged 28 years, 1 July, 1711. LUGE VIATOR, ET UT ILLE. DUM VITA MANEBAT, SUSPICE COELUM, DESPICE MUNDUM, RESPICE FINEM."

[i] Louis Crommelin, having lost his only son, left one daughter, who married Capt. de Berniere, likewise a Huguenot. Alexander, the third brother, had been married in Holland to a Mdlle. de Lavalade, and had two children:-- 1, Charles, who died unmarried; and 2. Madeline, who married Archdeacon Hutchinson, by whom she had three children; 1, Samuel; 2, Frances, who married D. Browne, Esq.; and 3, Matilda, who married R. Smyth Esq., of Duncree, county Westmeath.
     William, the younger brother, settled in Kilkenny, being one of the assistants appointed to his brother Louis: he conducted the branch of the Linen trade established at that place. He married Miss Butler, one of the Ormond family, and had two children; Louis, who died unmarried, and Marianne.
     Samuel, the second brother, married, after arriving in this country, the daughter of General Bellecastle; by whom he had issue four sons, Samuel, Daniel, James, and John; 1, Samuel, married Harriet Mangen, by whom he had eight children: of these only one left children, viz., Mary who married Mr. De la Cherois, of Donaghadee; and Jane, who married R. Hammond, Esq.; 2, Daniel, married Madeline, daughter of Major de la Cherois, by whom he had three sons, Daniel, Nicholas, and De la Cherois. Of these, only De la Cherois left issue, a daughter, Mary Angelica, who married Dr. Hutchinson, and was mother to Mrs. G. Leslie, of Donaghadee. 3, James, married a French lady, Mdlle. Gillotte, but died without issue. 4. John, likewise married a French lady, Mdlle. de Blacquiere, by whom he had one son, Isaac, who afterwards went to Holland, married and settled there, with the family of Madeline de la Cherois, (mother of Lady Mount Alexander,) who had never left Holland, and whose descendants still continue there.
     Madeline Crommelin, sister of Louis, and daughter of the first Samuel, married Paul Mangen, Esq.
     Marie Crommelin, the only remaining sister, married as we have said, Nicholas de la Cherois, in Holland.
     The Crommelins in the male line, are thus extinct in Ireland.

The above article is reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. 1, 1853.

Friday, 22 November 2013

Surnames in the County of Down (pt 2)


Considering how many surnames there are in this county, it is natural to suppose that some will present strange, or interesting, or illustrative varieties. One of the commonest is that in which changes of vowels occur, either in accordance with local peculiarities of speech, or merely from caprice. On the former ground we have Rabbe and Robb, Larimer and Lorimer; Taggartf and Teggart; Harveyg and Hervey; and, probably, we must ascribe to mere caprice, Abernathy, Nisbet, Nisbitt, Nesbett; and Arskine for Erskine. In other instances, the lengthening or shortening of a vowel requires an alteration in the consonants, when the word is written; but the principle is the same. Thus, Clelland, Cleland; Dorian, Dorrian; Magorian, Magorrian. Sometimes the spelling is varied to the eye, but the sound is identical to the ear; as Boal, Bole; Ray, Rea, Colquhoun, Cahoon, Cahoone; Waddle, Waddell.

A very common change in a surname is the addition of a plural termination by the vulgar, as Laws, Hopes, Mathers, Humes, Humphress (Humphry), Stotharts (Stoddart), Grimes (Graham), Dodds, Burns (Byrne), Barns (Baring), Sevens (Sefton), O'Briens.

The modes of abbreviation are sometimes very peculiar. One of the commonest is to omit the prefix Mac or O, and thus we have such names as 'Crory, 'Connell, 'Hagan, 'Keating, 'Kee, 'Keown, 'Kinney, 'Millen, 'Mullen, 'Neill, &c. Another very usual plan is to shorten the word to the extent of a syllable, by omitting a vowel or consonant; as Ste(v)enson, Shiel(d)s, Gar(de)ner, Titter(ing)ton, Pol(loc)k; Madole, for MacDowell, Greer, for MacGregor, Pender, for Prendergast.h

There is often a vulgar form of a surname which is never written, the correct form being used only on rare occasions. Thus, Buttonit (Arbuthnot), Kimmins (Cumming), Kinnigam (Cunningham), Bruertoni (Brereton), Frazure (Frisell), Haskiss (Hesketh), Skendritch (Scandrett), Merriday (Meredith), M'Elshender (Alexander.)

Sometimes the consonants of cognate origin are interchanged. Thus, by an indiscriminate use of two liquids, in names originally distinct, Torneyj and Torley become the same; so, also, Mulligank and Milliken; Lydiate and Liggart, or Legate; McQuiggan and McGuiggan.

In the barony of Mourne, the name Cunnigan is found; it is very distinct in its origin and use from Cunningham, with which it is often confounded. Megraw is given here separately from McGrath, but, in reality, the two names are one. Muckle and Meikle are Scotch forms of the English Mutch and Mudge; Little is common to both countries, probably in some instances altered from Liddell. McCaw is sometimes changed into McKay, as Make and Mack are into Malcom; but they appear to be distinct names. Uprichard (for Ap-Richard) is a singular instance of the Welsh settlers retaining the uncontracted form, though, on their native hills, the name usually takes the form Pritchard. Edgarl is vulgarly pronounced Agar, and some branches of the clan spell the name so, or Eager. It is pleasing to find that the ancient name of Magennis is abundant in both Iveagh and Locale, the old territory of the family; that Savages and Whites are still pretty numerous in Ards; and that Bagnall is not extinct in Newry. Hamilton prevails nearly all over the county.

There are several families of Saxon descent, whose names are commemorated in the names of townlands, villages, &c.; so that though they may not appear upon the present map they are well known in the topography of the district. Without entering into an explanation of the individual names, the following may be enumerated: Sea-Forde, Castle Ward, Acrem-McCricket, Isle-McCricket, Island-Henry, Jordan's-Acre, Jordan's-Crew, Dodd's-Island, Island-Teggart, Reilly's-Trench, Gilford, Hill-hall, Mount-Stewart, Echlin-ville, Mount-Alexander, Russell's-Quarter.

The term "town," is affixed on very slight grounds. Two families of the same name residing near each other, on a public road, might give such names as Briggs's-town, Hendry's-town, Megaghy's-town; and three would certainly do so. Among the many names of this kind we have the more formal ones of Carson's, Coniam's, Cook's, Greg's, Herd's, Hogg's, Marshall's, Priests', Slone's, Thomas's, Waring' s, and Whigham's towns. Of all these names, Carson and Sloane, in italics, are the only ones which appear on our map. More than half these places are in Ards, and three of them in the parish of Donaghadee.

Long before the settlement of Ulster, it was customary to name a place by appending the owner's name to the prefix "Bally." The Saxon settlers adopted the same plan, partly from analogy, and partly as a matter of necessity; for, as a general rule, except in countries newly discovered or explored, it is unquestionable that "the common people fix all our names of places." Omitting the prefix "Bally," and selecting only those names which occur on the map, there are townlands called Bally Adam, 'Black, 'Henry, 'Kelly, 'Vick-na-Kelly, [the town of Kelly's son], 'Magee, 'Martin, 'McConnell, 'McCormick, McKeown, 'Murphy, 'Rogan, 'Roney, 'Russell, 'White. In no instance does the position of the local name now coincide with the same name as applied to persons. There are several other townlands named from families,n which do not appear on the map; and the prefix "Bally" occurs associated with them in like manner. Other prefixes are connected with family names; as Rath-Gorman, Rath-Cunningham, Rath-Mullan, Tully-Branigan, (the hill of B.) Lis-na-Mulligan, (the fort of M.) Tir-Fergus, (the land of F.) Tir-Kelly, Saul, (i.e. Sabhal Phadraig, the barn of Patrick.) Sometimes, without naming a family surname, a large denomination is indicated; as Craig-na-Sassanach, the rock (or rocky land) of the Saxons, in the parish of Saintfield; and Carn-Albanach,o the stone heap of the Highlanders.

An examination of the names of the townlands would lead us away too far from the present subject, and might also forestall a special paper by some learned Gaelic scholar. But it may be permitted to name a few in a note. Some proclaim a Saxonp ancestry; others, again, are obviously of Celticq origin.

There are large districts in Upper Iveagh and Mourne thinly inhabited; and even in the lowlands there are spots where the inhabitants are few. In the parish of Kilkeel, there are townlands embracing more than 11,000 acres, or about seventeen square miles, with only one inhabited house! In Kilbroney, there is an area of 5,000 acres, or nearly eight square miles, with only two families resident. In the whole county there are 184 townlands which have not more than ten inhabited houses in any of them; and there are 22 others which have none whatever. Of the former, the greatest number are in Ards [36], and Lecale [66.] Of the latter, the greatest number are in Upper Iveagh [8], Lecale [5], and Mourne [4.]

In contrast with this diffusiveness, instances of the close condensation of families are more numerous and curious than in Antrim. The name Carse appears on the map in the parish of Killinchy: and all the persons of this name in the barony reside in this parish. Moreover, they are all found in one townland, Carrigulliam. There are thirteen families of the name Morrow in the same barony, of whom six are found in Derry-boy of Killileagh. The McIlwaines are all in Dromara parish, and in that part of it which lies in Kinclarty. There are eleven families of the name Blaney in Lecale; and six of them are found not only in one parish (Dunsfort) but in one townland (Sheepland More.) There are twenty-two Thomsons in Kinclarty, and fourteen are in the part of Magheradrool which lies in that barony. Five out of seven of the name Jennings are found in Ballynacraig, in the parish of Inch; and six out of nine of the name Neil are in Wood-grange of Down. Half of the Dicksons are in Ballygorian More of Clonduff; nearly all the Hooks in Corbitt of Magherally; and about half of the Annetts of Mourne, in the townland of Ballyvea. As before, each name is placed in the parish, without any attempt to secure a more minute localisation.

These simple facts show, if we required any such proof, that the centrifugal tendency is not great among the agricultural classes. In several instances, by the appending of the terms "junior" and "senior," and by all the other Christian names differing, I think I can recognise a father and his five sons "(who, ten or fifteen years ago, were a single household,) claiming for their family surname an honourable place on our little map. But if we include not merely brothers, but cousins, there is no doubt that there are many such instances. If we take in second cousins, (viz., persons having had a common great-grandfather,) the name may rise to one of the second rank, still allowing for a reasonable proportion to sink below the level of our test, -- the parliamentary suffrage; or to be drained off for town population or colonists. If a father, with a growing family, had settled here so recently as 1780, he might be represented at this hour by his great-grandsons, sturdy farmers, of thirty years old, "be the same more or less." But, as the majority settled a generation or two earlier, we have a superabundant population not on the voting list, in the proportion of live households to one.

[It is a peculiarity of articles like the present that every one suggests half-a-dozen others; and the last paragraph reminds me that no attempt has yet been made to write the "Family History" of our northern counties. The materials for it exist, but are passing away. I propose, health and leisure permitting, to write one or two such articles, which may not only interest by the facts themselves, but, as in the present case, may serve to guide others in researches of a similar kind.]


As before, the figures in the columns of the Table show the baronies in which the names occur upon the map; and this Table should show the whole 440 occurrences of the 252 names. The figures I denotes a name of the first Class, or one printed in small capitals; and 2, 3, 4, indicate block type. Roman Letter, and Italics, respectively.

The number [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] [--?--] county : thus, there are 123 which take precedence of Adams, and 97 which precede Agnew. In the table referring to Antrim, five or six names sometimes amounted to the same general number, but their order was put down according to the alphabetical arrangement, A more correct plan is followed here, the nature of which will be apparent from the order for the two counties given above. Boyd, Campbell, and Patterson, are all ranked as ninth in order, that is to say, only eight numbers precede them; but the next following, [McKee] is twelfth, as there are eleven which precede it. It is in this way that the names are all numbered 109, and the next number is 119; five are equal at this grade, and the next is 124, &c. Each of the group which is lowest in order is numbered 232; and such of them as appear in Upper or Lower Iveagh, Lecale, or Ards, might have disappeared from the map had there been the usual number of fourteen baronies instead of ten.

I am encouraged to believe that I do not overvalue this subject, from the numerous favourable testimonies which have been recorded respecting it, during the past three months. But as yet, only the first stone has been laid. If we had a map of Ireland, showing from twenty to fifty leading names in each county, we should be able to track the Saxon from the channel to the ocean, in his accumulations by conquest, grant, intermarriage, or purchase. If the same thing were done for England, our populations would, as it were, photograph themselves in their respective positions; and the numerous local causes which give rise to peculiar appellations would be ascertained with unusual facility; just as in geographical terms one shire is celebrated for "Halls," another for "fields," another for "becks," &c.; and so the "Tre, Pol, and Pen," of Cornwall are only indications of a large class of facts. In Scotland, though famine, the sword, clearance, and emigration have all swept over the country, a map of this kind would put flesh upon the dry bones, and muster each clan on the spot which it claims as its own. Instead of the loose generalities of topographers and tourists, we should ascertain the facts with absolute certainty; and, from the association of places and persons, it is impossible to say how much light might be thrown upon family and general history on the one side, or on local etymologies on the other.

If we widen the horizon of our researches, and suppose this work done for the countries in the north and west of Europe, what limit can be placed to the knowledge which we should acquire of our neglected continental relations? The Du Bois [wood, a wood, or Atwood] would figure under the Anglican metamorphosis of Boys and Boyce; and Cordeaux would be traced in Cordukes, just as the French beaux is vulgarised into English "bucks." In like manner, in the Scandinavian districts of our islands, Truelove would be represented in its original form, "Troe lof," ["bound in law, or bondsman"] while the northern Olav would be found altered to MacOlav, MacAulif, and Macauley.

It is needless to pursue these reflections farther. Let me only request that those literary explorers who may have patience sufficient to travel in the same path, will remember that I have gone two stages of the journey with them. And, I can assure them, that my guidance, whether of little or of much value, has been given with laborious accuracy, and the most sincere good faith.


in the
124 Adams, 4 4
98 Agnew, 3 4
53 Allen, 4 4
26 Anderson, 3 4 2 4
232 Angus, 4
109 Annett, 1
232 Archer, 4
168 Armstrong, 4
62 Baillie 1
210 Baird, 4
198 Bassett, 3
92 Beattie, 3
142 Beck, 4
14 Bell, 4 1 1
98 Bennett, 2
109 Bingham, 2
80 Black, 2
73 Blakeley, 2 4
183 Blaney, 2
18 Boyd, 1 2 4 4 4
134 Boyle, 4
210 Byrne, 4
5 Brown, 1 3 3 1 1 2
62 Burns, 2
109 Burns, 2
12 Campbell, 2 4 4 2 2
98 Carlisle, 2
168 Carse, 4 4
39 Carson, 3 3 3
124 Caughey, 3
44 Chambers, 2 2 4
224 Clanny, 4
42 Clarke, 2 4
48 Cleland, 2 4
119 Connor, 4
124 Cooper, 4
161 Corbett, 4 4
168 Corran, 4
88 Coulter, 4
142 Cowan, 4
98 Craig, 4
109 Crangle, 3 3
39 Crawford, 2 2
124 Cromey, 2
189 Croskerry, 4
161 Crothers, 2
142 Cunnighan, 2
53 Cunningham, 4 4 4
232 Cupples, 4
67 Davison, 3
168 Dalzell, 4
88 Denvir, 1
71 Dixon, 2
183 Dodds, 3
124 Donnan, 2
142 Doran, 4
189 Dorrian, 3
142 Doyle, 2
98 Edgar, 4
210 Emerson, 4
183 English, 3
57 Erwin, 1 4
142 Fegan, 4
31 Ferguson, 4 1 4 3 4
80 Finlay, 2
46 Fitzpatrick, 1 4 4
30 Fitzsimmons, 1
142 Gardner, 3
17 Gibson, 3 2 1
210 Gilchrist, 7
161 Gill, 4
95 Gillespie, 2 4
67 Gilmore, 4 3
232 Glenny, 4
57 Gordon, 4 4
11 Graham, 1 1 3 9
189 Grant, 4
161 Green, 4
224 Gunning, 4
15 Hamilton, 4 3 1 3
28 Hanna, 3 2 2
109 Harper, 4
134 Harvey, 4
109 Harrison, 2
232 Harshaw, 4
161 Hawthorne, 4
80 Henry, 3
32 Heron, 2 2
168 Hinds, 2
210 Hook, 4
161 Hughes, 3
224 Hutchison,
161 Hutton, 4
189 Innis, 4
80 Irvine, 4
134 Jackson, 2
36 Jamieson, 2 2 2
224 Jardine, 4
95 Jennings, 4 4
8 Johnson, 2 3 2 4 2 4 2
142 Jones, 3
168 Jordan, 4
198 Kearney, 3
44 Kelly, 4 4 3 4
48 Kennedy, 4 3 4
161 Keown, 2
36 Kerr, 4 2 4
142 Killen, 2
183 King, 4
168 Kirk, 4
168 Kirkpatrick, 4
124 Knox, 2
161 Lavery, 4
161 Law, 4 4
198 Lawther, 4
198 Lennon, 4
189 Lilburn, 2
57 Lindsay, 4 2 3
232 Livingstone, 4
168 Lockhart, 3
210 Loughlin, 4
39 Lowry, 4 4 3
232 Macken, 4
20 Magee, 3 4 1
62 Magennis, 1 3
88 Magill, 2 3
168 Maglennon, 2
224 Magowan, 4
124 Magreevy, 2
198 Maguire, 3
119 Malcomson, 3 4
168 Marshall, 4
2 Martin, 2 1 1 1 1 2
183 Megraw, 2
124 Mercer, 1
124 Miller, 3
210 Mills, 4
88 Mitchell, 3
198 Moorhead, 4
4 Moore, 1 1 3 4 2 2 2 4
134 Moreland, 4
142 Morgan, 4
97 Morrison, 4 2
15 Morrow, 2 2 2 4
232 Muckle, 4
80 Mulligan, 4 2
142 Murdoch, 4
28 Murphy, 4 2
22 Murray, 3 3 1
95 McAlister, 3
134 McAulay, 3
73 McBride, 2
53 McCartney, 4 2
198 McCaw, 4
57 McClelland, 3 1
168 McClory, 2
92 McComb, 4 4
62 McConnell, 3 3
189 McConvey,
119 McConvill, 2
142 McCormick 4
22 McCullough, 2 2
168 McCracken, 4
98 McCutcheon, 2
98 McDonnell, 4
34 McDowell 4 2 4 4
161 McEvoy, 3
210 McGifford, 4
198 McGivern, 3
224 M'Gorrian, 4
67 M'Grath, 2 4 4
232 M'Grattan, 4 4 2
109 McIlroy,
183 McIlwaine, 4
224 M'Keag, 4
92 McKeating, 4 1
3 McKee, 1 2 1 3 1 1 4
109 McKeown, 2
80 McKibbin, 4 4
232 McKinney, 4
98 McKnight, 2
119 McMaster, 4
142 McMillen, 2
57 McMullan, 2 4 4
75 McMurray, 2
189 McNabb, 3
134 McRoberts, 4
210 Napier, 4
98 Neill, 3
88 Nelson, 2
142 Nesbitt, 4
168 Nicholson, 2
210 O'Hagan, 3
34 O'Hare, 1
109 O'Neill, 3
22 Orr, 2 1 4 3
7 Patterson, 2 3 1 4 1 4 2
62 Patton, 1 3
71 Porter, 2
51 Quin, 4 4
42 Ray, 3 4
232 Radcliffe, 4
210 Rankin, 4
32 Reib, 3 4 3
142 Robb, 2
13 Robinson, 2 2 2 2
80 Rodgers, 3
142 Rogan, 2
75 Rooney, 1 4
142 Rowan, 2
210 Rush, 4
26 Russell, 3 4 4 4 4
198 Rutherford, 3
168 Sands, 4 4
42 Savage, 3 4 4 3
232 Scandrett, 4
21 Scott, 2 1 3
161 Seed, 2
189 Shannon, 4
25 Shaw, 3 1 4 4
119 Skelly, 4 4
36 Sloane, 4 3 4
1 SMITH, 1 3 2 4 1 1 2 1 3
109 Spence, 4 4
142 Speers, 2
210 Stanfield, 4
210 Starkey, 3
75 Stevenson, 4 4
9 Stewart, 1 3 2 2 4 2
142 Taggert, 2
48 Taylor, 4 2
6 Thomson, 4 3 1 1 2 1
134 Todd, 2
124 Torley, 4 4
161 Trainor, 4
232 Uprichard, 4
98 Walker, 4
18 Wallace, 1 4 1
97 Walsh, 4
224 Warden, 4
161 Warnock, 2
189 Waterson, 4
46 Watson, 4 2
198 Waugh, 4
53 White, 3 4
198 Whiteside, 4
10 Wilson, 3 4 2 2 3 4
51 Woods, 3 2
67 Wright, 3 4
80 Young, 2

[e] Compare those with the provincialisms form for farm, and band for bond.

[f] Like bagger for beggar.

[g] Compare sergeant, Derby, Berkley, Hertford. 

[h] Compare this with the English Chumley for Cholmonde ey.[sic]

[i] This form occurs in the ancient records of Cheshire, which is the original seat of the name.

[j] Compare the provincial words "flannen" and "chimley."

[k] The interchange of g and k occurs provincially in braggot, for bracket, and shog for shock. Similarly from tabak (a native American word for pipe), came the Spanish Tobago, whence the English word tobacco.

[l] The four families (using the term family in a large sense) of Dunbar, Hume, Edgar, and Dundas, all trace their descent in an unbroken male line, from a common ancestor - Cospatrick, Earl of Northumberland, [-?-] William I. It should be borne in mind that surnames originated about the twelfth century. The record of the relationship is preserved to this hour in their armorial bearings; three of them having the same charge, but varying the tincture, and the fourth varying both slightly. See Drummond's History of the Noble British Families, and Douglas's Peerage, by [-?-]

[m] The term is here used in the general sense of an enclosure. Thus, our Saxon forefathers called the church-yard "God's acre" See Longfellow's Poems. "It does not appear that in ancient times, an acre signified any determinate quantity of land; and when, at length, it came to signify a specific quantity, the measure still varied, till it was fixed by the statute, called the Ordinance for Measuring of Land, passed in the reign of Edward I. The perch, or rod, however, with which land was measured, not being the same in all places, the acre, of course, still varied, as it does to to this day. In some instances in Cornwall, what is called an acre, is not less than a hundred statute acres! The Cheshire, the Lancashire [also, the Cunningham, the Irish Plantation], and the statute acre, consist of very different quantities." -- Boucher's Archean Glossary.(?)

[n] Bally Barnes, 'Branigan, 'Bryan, 'Copeland, 'Cullen, 'French, 'Garvigan, Gilbert, 'Lucas, 'MacNamee, 'Maginaghy, 'Megaughy, 'Macarnett, 'Macaratty, 'Maconoghy, 'Macateer, 'MacKeown, 'Minnish, 'Mullen, 'Nicol, 'Philip, 'Rickard, 'Ridley, 'Stokes, 'Walter, 'Ward, 'William.

[o] There are two townlands of this name in the parish of Moira, of the extent of about twenty-three and twelve acres respectively. Neither of them has any resident population.

[p] Killinchy-in-the-woods, Narrow-water, Quarterland, Grey Abbey, White Abbey, White Church, Fish Quarter, Broom Q., Nuns' Q , Church Q., Spittle Q , Saul-Q, Q. Bailee, New Castle, Trooper-field, Holy-wood, Bishop's-Court, (in Ards formerly the episcopal residence.) Strang-ford, Sheep-land, Green-castle, the Strand (popularly the Sthron', at Killough.)

[q] Coolsallagh (the wood of osiers), Ballysallagh (the place of the willows, or osiers), Knock-na-goney (the hill of the rabbits), Billy-knock (the town of the hill), Knock-breckan (the fern hill.) The parish of Knock, in Lower Castlereagh, was united with the parish of Breda, in Upper, forming the present parish of Knock-Breda. [Between the rivers Senegal and Gambia, in Western Africa, lies Sene-Gambia showing a similar union of names,] Tully-na-kill (the hill of the church), Tullyard (the high hill), Tullymore (the great hill) Tullylish (the hill of the fort), Lisduff (the black hill), and Lis-na-brague, Lis-na-gade, Li-na-Gonnell, and Lis-na-Tierney, all in the parish of Aghaderg. -- Ardglass (the green height). Derry boy (the yellow oak wood), Derry oge (the young oak wood), Ross (the promontory), Ross-glass (the green promontory), Ross-connor (Connor's promontory), Slieve-na-griddle (the mountain of the sun, exhibiting traces of idolatrous worship at its summit), Inch (the island, from its situation in reference to the Quoile river). Bally-kinler (the town of the candlestick, certain endowments from it having provided candles for the high altar in one of the two cathedrals of Dublin), and Glass-mass, in Cumber (green field.) The Holywell-station, on the Chester and Holyhead railway, is called "Greenfield," by the English, and "Ma(c?)s-Glass," by the Welsh.

The above article is reproduced from the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. 6, 1858.