MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
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Edited by JAMES CARSON.
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HETEROGENEA, OR MEDLEY.
(For the benefit of the Poor.)
By JOHN MOORE JOHNSTON.
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Printed at Downpatrick in 1803 by James Parks.
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Editorial Notes on the Heterogenea.
The name Killultagh is used in several senses. As Killultagh and Derrykillultagh it is the name of a townland in Ballinderry containing some 700 acres. The territory of Killultagh was an old term in use long before the division of the country into Baronies and Counties, and roughly comprised the district lying between the River Lagan and Lough Neagh. The Manor of Killultagh, known as the Hertford Estate, embraced the old territory, and in addition the lands Of Derrievolgie and numerous adjoining townlands. Sir Foulke Conway received a grant of the territory about 1608, the other lands were afterwards added to the Conway property. Killultagh in Irish is Coill Ultagh, the forest or wood of Ulster. Lis-na-garvach, the fort of the gamester. Killultagh belonged to the O'Neills, the descendants of Hugh Boye O'Neill. There were three forts in the territory -- Inisloughlin, near Trummery House, Moira; Portmore, beside Lough Neagh; and one on a mound above the Lagan, close to Lisnagarvey.
SIR FOULKE CONWAY
died in 1624. The Church of St. Thomas, now the Cathedral, was opened for divine service in 1623. Sir Foulke was succeeded by his brother, Sir Edward, Baron Conway, who got the title of Viscount of Killultagh in 1627, and built the Castle of which the remains still exist in the Castle Gardens. His son, also named Edward, the second Viscount, succeeded in 1630, and died in 1655; and his son, also named Edward, who built the Castle at Portmore, died in 1683. The property then passed by will to his cousin, Popham Seymour, who took the name of Conway. Popham fell in a duel with Colonel Kirk in 1699, and died unmarried. The estate then passed to his brother, Francis Seymour, first Lord Conway, created Baron Conway of Killultagh in 1712. He died at Lisburn 1731, and was succeeded by his son Francis, first Marquess, created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford 1750, and Earl of Yarmouth and
MARQUESS OF HERTFORD 1793.
He died 1794, his honours and estate going to his son Francis, second Marquess, K.G., who assumed the additional surname and arms of Ingram; and died in 1822. To him succeeded his son, Francis Charles, third Marquess, K.G., who died in 1842. He is best remembered as the original of the Marquis of Steyne in Thackeray's "Vanity Fair" and Lord Monmouth in Disraeli's "Coningsby." Richard, the forth Marquess, K.G., son of Francis Charles, died, unmarried, in 1870. He was known from 1822 till the death of his father as Earl of Yarmouth. The title then passed to Francis George Hugh, fifth Marquees, cousin of Richard, and the Irish Estate, after a lawsuit with Sir Hamilton Seymour, passed, in 1872, into the possession of
SIR RICHARD WALLACE, BART.
From the Dictionary of National Biography we gather that Sir Richard, connoisseur and collector of works of art, born 1818, died 1890, was at one time reputed to be the natural son of the fourth Marquis of Hertford, his senior by only 18 years. But the truth in all probability is that he was the fourth Marquis' half brother and the natural son of that nobleman's mother, the great heiress, Maria Fagniani, Marchioness of Hertford, who had married in 1798 Francis Charles, the third Marquis. Maria Fagniani was the daughter of the Marchesa Fagniani, and was adopted by George Augustus Selwyn, wit and politician, 1719-1791. A dispute between the Duke of Queensberry and Selwyn regarding her paternity was never settled. In early youth Sir Richard was known as Richard Jackson. On Lord Hertford's death in 1870, he found himself heir to such of his property as the deceased Marquis could devise by will, including a house in Paris, Hertford House in London, the Irish Estates about Lisburn, which then brought in some £50,000 a year, and the finest collection of pictures and objects of art in private hands in the world. He represented Lisburn in the Imperial Parliament from 1873 to 1885. A large portion of his life was spent in Paris, where he died 20th July 1890, leaving no surviving children. He married in 1871 the daughter of a French officer -- Bernard Castelnau -- who had already borne him a son. Lady Wallace died in 1897. She left by will to the English nation the Hertford-Wallace Collection. Hertford House, London, was acquired by the Government and adapted to the purposes of a public museum, and it is there that the collection is now domiciled. Sir Richard Wallace was a noble and philanthropic gentleman. He spent vast sums of money in assisting the suffering citizens of Paris in 1870. His generosity to Lisburn is well known. His liberal treatment of the tenantry on the Hertford Estate, after he came into possession, was worthy of all praise, reversing in a moment the harsh and oppressive methods of his predecessors.
SIR GEORGE RAWDON
was possibly the most influential man in Killultagh in the 17th century. He was born at Rawdon Hall, near Leeds. He appears to have been M.P. for Belfast in 1639, and later for Carrickfergus. In 1640 he got a lease from Viscount Conway of certain lands which included Brookhill, and the lease would appear to have been renewed in 16419. In 1654 he was building a house in Lisburn, having married in that year, as his second wife, Dorothy Conway, sister of the second Viscount Conway. Rawdon assisted in the defence of Lisburn against the Irish rebels, November 28th, 1641. For his various services to the State he secured a grant of several thousand acres of land in the territory of Moyra, which had belonged to the O'Laverys, and became Sir George Rawdon, Bart., of Moyra House. He died in 1684, and was buried in Lisburn. He was the ancestor of the Earls of Moira. The first Earl was created in 1761; the second Earl added to his honours the title of Marquess of Hastings in 1816; the third and fourth Earls followed; the fifth died in 1868, and the title became extinct.
A valuable article by the Rev. W. H. Dundas, B.D.. has been largely drawn upon in compiling the foregoing notes on Killultagh -- the Early History of the Conway Family and Sir George Rawdon.
The Dioceses of
DOWN AND CONNOR
were united in 1442. Dromore was united with Down and Connor in 1842. The Bishops of the United Diocese were -- Richard Mant, 1842; Robert Knox, 1849; William Reeves, 1886; Thomas J. Welland, 1892; John B. Crosier, 1907; Charles F. D'Arcy, 1911. In 1699 Bishop Smith, a native of Lisburn, was Bishop of Down and Connor. He was appointed at 34 years of age. The United Diocese includes the whole of the Counties of Antrim and Down and portions of Londonderry and Armagh.
was originally built in 1623, and known as the Church of St. Thomas. It was twice burnt -- by the Irish rebels in 1641 and accidentally in 1707. When rebuilt after 1707 it was minus the spire, and remained so for almost 100 years. The spire was added by the second Marquis of Hertford in 1807. Since then, from its lofty height, the Curfew Bell has sounded forth nightly at 9 o'clock 100 strokes of the bell, marking the ancient custom and the hour. The Church was constituted in 1662 the Cathedral of the Diocese of Down and Connor by charter of Charles II. It is remarkable as being the church of which Bishop Jeremy Taylor was lecturer, and in later times the chief church of the Huguenot settlement. Incumbents -- Rev. James Mace, 1661; Rev. Joseph Wilkins, 1672; Rev. George Wilkins, 1716: Rev. Anthony Rogers, 1727; Rev. Richard Dobbs, 1749; Rev. Thomas Higginson, 1777; Rev. Wm. Traill, Archdeacon, 1781; Rev. Snowden Cupples, D.D., 1796; Rev. James Stannus, Dean of Ross, 1835; Rev. Hartley Hodson, D.D., 1876; Rev. William D. Pounden, A.B., Canon, 1884.
The information regarding the United Diocese and incumbents of the Cathedral is taken from the Handbook of the United Diocese of Down and Connor and Dromore, compiled by L. M. Ewart in 1886.
On the Cathedral organ are two plates recording that it was
"Presented by the Marquis of Hertford through the very Rev. Dean Stannus."
"Snowden Cupples, D.D., Rector.
Thos. Thompson, Curate.
Surgeon Thomas Wethered,
George Emerson, C. Wardens.
There are twenty-eight tablets or monuments in the building; including those to Bishop Jeremy Taylor, who died in Lisburn 1667; buried at Dromore; the Rev. Saumerez Dubourdieu, 1812; Brigadier-General John Nicholson, 1857; his brother, Major Charles J. Nicholson, 1862; Lieutenant William Dobbs, R.N., 1778; Lieutenant Thomas Johnson-Smyth, R.N., 1846; Major T. R. Johnson-Smyth, 1900; Colonel James Graham, 1905; Major R. B. Fulton, 1836; and to Lakes, Mercers, Rogers, Hawkshaws, Grahams, Whitlas, Atkinsons, Higginsons, etc., etc. The following is a short extract from a very long inscription on a tablet on the wall in the hall approaching the gallery --
"S.M. John Mercer, Esq., from Scotland, died about A.D. 1636.
"Captain John, son of the above, died A.D. 1650.
"John of Castle Robin, Derryaghey, son of the above, died A.D. 1726.
"John Mercer, Esq., of Hill Hall Court, son of the above, died A.D. 1731."
There is also a memorial erected in 1915 to commemorate the 60 years' faithful ministry in the Diocese of the Rev. William Dawson Pounden, B.A., Canon.
the first head-master of the Ulster Provincial School, Lisburn, was a man of ability and learning. He published a "History of the People called Quakers," in four volumes, in 1789, and was also author of a book on Arithmetic which for many years held the position of a Standard text-book in Irish schools. He died in 1791. In the Friends' Burying-ground, Railway Street, is a stone to his memory bearing the simple record--
25th 10th Mo., 1791."
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The Vitriol Works referred to as carried on by Dr. Crawford were on the Island formed by the Canal and River Lagan, now occupied by the Island Spinning Co., Ltd.
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The old Market-house was situated in Market Square, and occupied the lower portion of what is now known in 1916 as the Assembly Rooms.
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The Linen Hall was located at the junction of Linenhall Street and Smithfield, opposite the lower end of Market Street, and now converted into a Butter and Egg Market.
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The old Castle was built between 1624 and 1630 in what is known as the Castle Gardens, and of which some of the walls and foundations still exist; it was destroyed by fire in 1707.
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Prior to the Union Lisburn returned two burgesses to the Irish Parliament.
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Mr. George Sands, C.E., has in his possession two large maps engrossed on sheep skin, bearing dates 1726 and 1729. The town lands and names of then occupying tenants on the Hertford Estate are shown thereon. He has also a book, 1705-1709, containing a large number of short agreements in relation to the taking of land signed by the tenants. It is believed there are several more of these books in existence.
Mr. Joseph Allen, who has accumulated a valuable collection of books, pamphlets, and relics of old Lisburn, has in his possession a copy of an
ANCIENT MAP OF THE TOWN,
which shows that the general configuration remains practically unchanged for almost three hundred years. Castle Street (described in the map as the High Street), Bridge Street, Market Square, and the Cathedral occupy the same ground and positions to-day as they did when James the First was King. Only the people and buildings have changed. On the margin of the map are the names of 52 residents. They agree fairly closely with those given in Heterogenea, save that in several instances the spelling of the names differ. In the Market Square was a School-house, to be succeeded by a Market-house, and later by the Assembly Rooms. The 52 houses are numbered, and the name of The occupier of each house is given. The High Street or Castle Street would appear to extend not quite to the Infirmary, Bridge Street ran down to the Lagan, and Market Square ended about Tanyard Lane. The whole town was comprised within these limits. With the copy of the Map is an undated note by Edward Cupples, possibly a relative of Dr. Cupples, incumbent of Lisburn Parish 1796, 1835, which reads: "This ground plot of the town of Lisnagarvey, or Lisburn, is copied from the original in the possession of William Smith, Esq., Agent to the Marquis of Hertford, who obtained it from the Agent of Lord Moira, being found among his Lordship's papers. It has no date, but it is supposed to have been drawn between the years 1622 and 1678, the former being the date on a stone placed over an entrance door in the ruins of the chief dwelling-house contained within, and the latter the date of a ground plot of the stables at Portmore, which seems to have been drawn by the same hand."
William Smith was Agent to Lord Hertford in 1803. "The chief dwelling-house contained within" is marked on the Map as situated in the Castle Gardens, and provided with extensive stables, outbuildings, gardens, etc. It is also described on the Map as the Manor House. The house, court yards, garden, brewhouse, oat-house, powder-house, and office were all surrounded by a wall. The stables, stable yard, slaughter-house, kitchen garden, orchard, fish pond, etc., etc., were all outside the wall. The stables bordered on the High Street. The date 1622 mentioned as being over a door in the ruins raises a doubt as to the identity of the building, but it is possible that on the site of the Castle built by Sir Fulk Conway's brother there was a previous building, and it or the portion of it bearing the date 1622 was incorporated in the Castle built by Baron Conway, between 1624 and 1630. As, however, there is at the present time, a stone in an old arch over a large gateway or entrance in the Castle Gardens bearing the date 1677, it is not improbable, that Mr. Cupples has confused the dates -- 1622 and 1677.
Sir Foulk Conway received a grant of the territory of Killultagh about 1608. He died in 1624, and it was by him, and in his time, that the town was laid out in the form represented on the Map. Long prior to 1608, even before the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there was a small village here, even then known as Lisnegarvey.
Mrs. George Wilson, Castle Street, owns a signed copy of the Heterogenea, which she kindly placed at the Editor's disposal.
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Ulster Journal of Archaeology,
Mr. Thomas Sinclair, J.P., Chairman Lisburn Urban District Council, who has been interesting himself for some time past in the question of procuring for Lisburn a coat of arms, has in his possession a series of articles on Armorial Bearings by John Vinycomb, M.R.I.A., which have appeared from time to time in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology.
There is no law, it appears, against a Corporation simply assuming Armorial Bearings, without going through the formality and incurring the cost of getting a grant. A body may assume a coat of arms, acquire a right in it, by the lapse of time, and in due course get a confirmation.
These articles have been placed at the disposal of the Editor.
No authentic record appears to exist for the arms borne by very many of the towns in the United Kingdom, and many ancient boroughs are unable to justify their use of arms upon any other ground than long use. This may be explained by the fact that the earliest coats of arms and corporate seals were not the result of a grant from any herald or monarch, but were simply devised and used at the will of their bearers. The Heralds' College in England was not incorporated until 1484, and in Ireland somewhat later.
It appears from a statute of Richard III., ch. 8, that at that time every city or borough possessed its own distinctive seal or coat of arms. It is thereby enacted that the leaden seals, affixed to pieces of cloth to certify that the piece was of the size prescribed by law, should be stamped on one side with the royal arms, and on the other with the arms of the city or borough where the cloth was manufactured; so that the arms of the different cities and boroughs must have been distinctive and well-known devices giving warranty for the measure and place of manufacture. An analogous custom formerly prevailed in Ireland in the linen manufacture.
In the case of some towns, the seal of the Corporation differs entirely from the arms in use; while in a number of instances the non-heraldic devices on early corporate seals have, in later times, been adopted into armorial form and used as town arms.
At the present (1894) only some six or seven towns in Ireland bear authorised arms; the rest of the so-called corporate arms consist of a jumble of armory -- some heraldic, some semi-heraldic, but most of them absolute heraldic nonsense. It is a pity, therefore, that those members of our corporations who are interested in having the arms of their corporate towns correct, should not apply to the proper quarter for a confirmation or grant of arms, as the case may be.
With regard to the legal right to use Armorial Bearings, a coat of arms, either for a person or a corporation, can be obtained on payment of certain fees and stamps. The grantee has the exclusive and preferential right to these arms, which right is vested in his descendants, or in those whom the patent may recite. No person can give or sell or bequeath his coat of arms to another person; and in the case of corporations, it should be understood that a properly accredited coat may only be used by and with authority, in the words of an old grant, "to be borne and used for ever hereafter by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the said town of ----------- and their successors in office in their corporate capacity, on shields, banners, seals, or otherwise according to the laws of arms, without let or interruption by any person or persons whatsoever."
Ulster King of Arms is empowered to grant arms, or make a confirmation or re-adjustment of an existing coat. Arms are admitted when the proof of their having existed and been authoritatively borne for a lengthened period can be brought in evidence. It is a prevalent idea that such an application means outlay and great expense; but such is not the fact; The total fees, for a "Confirmation" only, amount to some £16. If "user" of a certain coat for 100 years can be shown, the authorities are empowered to issue a "Confirmation." The fees on a "Grant," including patent stamp and all other expenses, amount to £44. The fees in Ulster's office -- which all go into Her Majesty's Treasury -- are not nearly so high as in England; nor are there any taxes in Ireland on the use of armorial bearings, as in the sister kingdom.
LISBURN is situated on both sides of the River Lagan, in the Counties of Antrim and Down, seven miles south of Belfast. The population in 1841 was only 6,284; it is now about 14,000. The improvements which have taken place since the late lamented Sir Richard Wallace came into possession of the Hertford estates have been almost unprecedented in the history of any other town in Ireland.
The original name of the town was LISNAGARVEN, meaning "the fort of the Carogh," or "Gamester."
After the great fire during the wars of 1641, its name was changed to Lisburn. In 1707 the town and castle were burned to the ground; the later has never been rebuilt, but the tower soon arose and greatly increased in extent. Sixty families of French Huguenot refugees settled here after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, introducing and carrying on the manufacture of linen. The descendants of many of these settlers still remain.
The Cathedral of Christ Church contains many interesting monuments -- the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, who died here in 1667; Brigadier-General Nicholson, the hero of the Punjaub; Lieut. Dobbs, R.N., killed in a sea fight off Carrickfergus in 1778 by Paul Jones, the American privateer; and several others. This venerable building was dignified as the Cathedral of the Diocese of Down and Connor by Charles II. to reward the fidelity of the inhabitants to his father and himself, and he granted the townsmen the privilege of sending two members to the Irish House of Commons.
The present seal of the Town Commissioners is circular, 1¼ in. in diameter, and bears in the centre a Royal crown, with the legend on the margin, "LISBURN TOWN COMMISSIONERS' SEAL."
A curious heraldic anachronism exists on the great pediment of the new Courthouse, Railway Street -- the obsolete arms of the United Kingdom of the reign of George III. being used instead of those of the present reign.
(This article was originally published in the Lisburn Standard on 10 November 1916 as part of a series which ran in that paper each week through 1917. The text along with other with some other extracts can be found on my website Eddies Extracts.)